ScienceDaily: Earth & Climate News

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ScienceDaily: Earth & Climate News


Three gallons of radioactive tank waste vitrified last month
Climate change impacts fragile river ecosystems
Diverse and abundant megafauna documented at new Atlantic US Marine National Monument
Climate change in Quebec equals a much greater diversity of species???
Major shifts in global freshwater
Rising emissions of ozone-destroying chemical banned by Montreal Protocol
Europium points to new suspect in continental mystery
Scientists predict how 686 marine species' habitats may shift in response to warming seas
Natural regeneration or tree-planting? Study points to bias in forest restoration studies
Whole-tree logging may not hinder plant biodiversity
A simple software error corrected: Bittersweet chloroplast genome becomes the model
Climate change should help Midwest corn production through 2050
Less water, same Texas cotton
How 'navigational hazards' in metro maps confuse travelers
New technique reveals details of forest fire recovery
How large can a tsunami be in the Caribbean?
A shipwreck and an 800-year-old 'made in China' label reveal lost history
Global 2 degrees C rise doubles population exposed to multiple climate risks compared to 1.5 degrees C
Small birds almost overheat while feeding their young
Scientists' new way to identify microscopic worm attacking coffee crops
Forest loss in one part of US can harm trees on the opposite coast
Worm-eating mice reveal how evolution works on islands
Hippo waste causes fish kills in Africa's Mara River
Self-driving car has taken a leap towards automatic 24/7 driving
China's program 'riskiest environmental project in history,' researcher warns
A green approach to making ammonia could help feed the world
Traditional knowledge sheds light on changing East Greenland climate and polar bear hunt
Eyewitness accounts fill in details of 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami
437 million tons of fish, $560 billion wasted due to destructive fishing operations
Uncertainty in long-run economic growth likely points toward greater emissions, climate change costs
New lineage of microbes living in Yellowstone sheds light on origin of life
Accumulating over time, even low concentrations of silver can foil wastewater treatment


Three gallons of radioactive tank waste vitrified last month



Posted: 16 May 2018 02:23 PM PDT


Approximately three gallons of low-activity Hanford tank waste were vitrified at PNNL's Radiochemical Processing Laboratory in April. The laboratory-scale demonstration is an important step toward the eventual treatment of millions of gallons of hazardous waste generated during past plutonium production at Hanford.


Climate change impacts fragile river ecosystems



Posted: 16 May 2018 02:22 PM PDT


Research undertaken in South Africa's Kruger National Park (KNP) has shown that some of the world's most sensitive and valuable riverine habitats are being destroyed due to an increasing frequency of cyclone-driven extreme floods.


Diverse and abundant megafauna documented at new Atlantic US Marine National Monument



Posted: 16 May 2018 02:22 PM PDT


Airborne marine biologists were dazzled by the diversity and abundance of large, unusual and sometimes endangered marine wildlife on a recent trip to the Northeast Canyons and Seamounts National Marine Monument, about 150 miles southeast of Cape Cod.


Climate change in Quebec equals a much greater diversity of species???



Posted: 16 May 2018 02:22 PM PDT


A team of researchers believe that, paradoxically, climate change may result in Quebec's national and provincial parks becoming biodiversity refuges of continental importance as the variety of species present there increases. They calculated potential changes in the presence of 529 species in about one third of the protected areas in southern Quebec. Their results suggest that fifty -- eighty years from now (between 2071-2100) close to half of the protected regions of southern Quebec may see a species turnover of greater than 80 %.


Major shifts in global freshwater



Posted: 16 May 2018 01:25 PM PDT


A new global, satellite-based study of Earth's freshwater found that Earth's wet areas are getting wetter, while dry areas are getting drier. The data suggest this pattern is due to many factors, including human water management practices, human-caused climate change and natural climate cycles.


Rising emissions of ozone-destroying chemical banned by Montreal Protocol



Posted: 16 May 2018 01:25 PM PDT


Emissions of one of the chemicals most responsible for the Antarctic ozone hole are on the rise, despite an international treaty that required an end to its production in 2010, a new study shows.


Europium points to new suspect in continental mystery



Posted: 16 May 2018 11:48 AM PDT


Clues from some unusual Arizona rocks pointed scientists toward a discovery -- a subtle chemical signature in rocks the world over -- that could answer a long-standing mystery: What stole the iron from Earth's continents?


Scientists predict how 686 marine species' habitats may shift in response to warming seas



Posted: 16 May 2018 11:48 AM PDT


New predictions reveal how global warming may shift the geographic distribution of 686 marine species that inhabit North America's Atlantic and Pacific continental shelves, according to a new study.


Natural regeneration or tree-planting? Study points to bias in forest restoration studies



Posted: 16 May 2018 11:47 AM PDT


At a time when countries are pledging to restore millions of hectares of forest, new research argues that recent studies on forest regeneration techniques are flawed. Sites used to evaluate natural regeneration were secondary growth forests, whereas sites chosen to evaluate artificial regeneration ranged from abandoned coal mines to cattle-trampled fields. Authors of the new study suggest elements of both techniques should be considered, depending on the objectives for a site and its current state.


Whole-tree logging may not hinder plant biodiversity



Posted: 16 May 2018 11:46 AM PDT


When it comes to timber harvesting, removing the whole tree -- from stump to twigs -- doesn't reduce plant diversity any more than old-fashioned logging, which leaves tree branches behind in the woods, new research finds.


A simple software error corrected: Bittersweet chloroplast genome becomes the model



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:37 AM PDT


Information about the organization and evolution of plastomes is crucial to improve crop plants and to resolve the phylogeny of photosynthetic organisms. In a recent study researchers have sequenced the plastid genome of a weed called bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara).


Climate change should help Midwest corn production through 2050



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:36 AM PDT


Contrary to previous analyses, research shows that projected changes in temperature and humidity will not lead to greater water use in corn. This means that while changes in temperatures and humidity trend as they have in the past 50 years, crop yields can not only survive -- but thrive.


Less water, same Texas cotton



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:36 AM PDT


In Texas, the Southern High Plains uses water from an aquifer to water cotton fields. However, the aquifer is running low. Scientists from the area are working to find the best irrigation method for cotton that uses the least water.


How 'navigational hazards' in metro maps confuse travelers



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:36 AM PDT


Some features in metro maps cause passengers to make substantial mistakes in journey planning, but it may be possible to detect and rectify these with automated software, new research has indicated.


New technique reveals details of forest fire recovery



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:35 AM PDT


Do you know someone who's so caught up in the details of a problem that they 'can't see the forest for the trees?' Scientists seeking to understand how forests recover from wildfires sometimes have the opposite problem.


How large can a tsunami be in the Caribbean?



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:23 AM PDT


The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami has researchers reevaluating whether a magnitude 9.0 megathrust earthquake and resulting tsunami might also be a likely risk for the Caribbean region, seismologists report.


A shipwreck and an 800-year-old 'made in China' label reveal lost history



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


Nearly a thousand years ago, a ship sank in the Java Sea near Indonesia. Cargo recovered from the ocean floor -- including the equivalent to a 'Made in China' label on a piece of pottery -- is helping archaeologists reevaluate when the ship went down and how it fits in with China's history.


Global 2 degrees C rise doubles population exposed to multiple climate risks compared to 1.5 degrees C



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


New research identifying climate vulnerability hotspots has found that the number of people affected by multiple climate change risks could double if the global temperature rises by 2 degrees C, compared to a rise of 1.5 degrees C.


Small birds almost overheat while feeding their young



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


For decades, researchers have thought that access to food determined the brood size of birds. Now, biologists have discovered a completely new explanation: the body temperature of small birds can increase by more than 4°C to exceed 45°C when they are feeding their young. Larger broods would require more work, resulting in even higher body temperatures -- something the birds would probably not survive.


Scientists' new way to identify microscopic worm attacking coffee crops



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


The plants which produce one of the most popular drinks in the world, coffee, are targeted by a microscopic worm, but scientists are fighting back. An underestimated problem in coffee farming, the parasite has been found in soil samples across the coffee growing world thanks to a new and quick detection method.


Forest loss in one part of US can harm trees on the opposite coast



Posted: 16 May 2018 05:57 AM PDT


If a whole forest disappears, new research shows, this has ricocheting effects in the atmosphere that affect vegetation on the other side of the country.


Worm-eating mice reveal how evolution works on islands



Posted: 16 May 2018 05:56 AM PDT


When animals are isolated on islands, they can evolve into strange new species found nowhere else on Earth. But what's the cut-off -- how small can an island be and still support the evolution of multiple new species from a single common ancestor? A family of worm-eating mice from a tiny island in the Philippines have set a new lower limit for island size and evolution.


Hippo waste causes fish kills in Africa's Mara River



Posted: 16 May 2018 05:56 AM PDT


Ecologists have long known that agricultural and sewage pollution can cause low oxygen conditions and fish kills in rivers. A new study reports that hippo waste can have a similar effect in Africa's Mara River, which passes through the world renowned Maasai Mara National Reserve of Kenya, home to more than 4,000 hippos.


Self-driving car has taken a leap towards automatic 24/7 driving



Posted: 15 May 2018 03:09 PM PDT


VTT's robot car, Marilyn, sees better than humans in foggy, and even snowy, conditions, and can now navigate without stopping -- including in bad weather. It can also see a human through fog and avoid accident automatically.


China's program 'riskiest environmental project in history,' researcher warns



Posted: 15 May 2018 03:09 PM PDT


A global expert on infrastructure says that China's plan to crisscross half of the Earth with massive transportation and energy projects is environmentally the riskiest venture ever undertaken.


A green approach to making ammonia could help feed the world



Posted: 15 May 2018 10:15 AM PDT


Researchers have developed a new 'green' approach to making ammonia that may help make feeding the rising world population more sustainable.


Traditional knowledge sheds light on changing East Greenland climate and polar bear hunt



Posted: 15 May 2018 10:15 AM PDT


Inuit polar bear hunters in East Greenland report changes to their subsistence hunting patterns as well as polar bear distribution and behavior due to decreasing sea ice and the introduction of hunting quotas in 2006. The study is the first in nearly 20 years to document traditional knowledge in East Greenland -- providing a valuable baseline for monitoring future changes and the polar bear population.


Eyewitness accounts fill in details of 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami



Posted: 15 May 2018 07:56 AM PDT


Almost 70 years later, the man remembers the August day in Playa Rincon, when he clung to the top of an almond tree to survive a tsunami where the waters rushed about 700 meters inland after a magnitude 8.1 earthquake. His recollections and other astonishing eyewitness accounts of the tsunami that struck the Dominican Republic in 1946 are being used to reconstruct the tsunami's heights and inundation distances.


437 million tons of fish, $560 billion wasted due to destructive fishing operations



Posted: 15 May 2018 07:56 AM PDT


Industrial fisheries that rely on bottom trawling wasted 437 million tonnes of fish and missed out on $560 billion in revenue over the past 65 years, new research has found.


Uncertainty in long-run economic growth likely points toward greater emissions, climate change costs



Posted: 15 May 2018 06:29 AM PDT


A challenge in estimating the extent and cost of damages from climate change over the next 100 years is developing forecasts of long-run economic growth. In a new study, researchers present a systematic method of integrating current models to develop forecasts of uncertainty in global and regional per capita economic growth rates through the year 2100.


New lineage of microbes living in Yellowstone sheds light on origin of life



Posted: 15 May 2018 06:29 AM PDT


Scientists have found a new lineage of microbes living in Yellowstone National Park's thermal features that sheds light on the origin of life, the evolution of archaeal life and the importance of iron in early life.


Accumulating over time, even low concentrations of silver can foil wastewater treatment



Posted: 15 May 2018 06:29 AM PDT


Research has shed new light how an increasingly common consumer product component -- silver nanoparticles -- can potentially interfere with the treatment of wastewater.
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