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ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News

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ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News

High intake of dietary fiber and whole grains associated with reduced risk of non-communicable diseases Researchers correct genetic mutation that causes IPEX, a life-threatening autoimmune syndrome Perceptions of chronic fatigue syndrome in the emergency department AI approach outperformed human experts in identifying cervical precancer Experimental antibody 'cocktail' protects animals from three deadly Ebola viruses Madariaga virus spreads to Haiti Bacteria help discover human cancer-causing proteins A human model to test implants for cataract surgery Targeting an RNA-binding protein to fight aging New role for brain's support cells in controlling circadian rhythms Using genetics of human fat cells to predict response to anti-diabetes drugs Researchers reveal active-state structure of popular drug target for blood pressure Men and women remember pain differently Disconnect between brain's dopamine system and cocaine addiction Bioinspired nanoscale drug delivery method Decades-old question about protein found in Alzheimer's brain plaques HIV protein function that slows migration of T cells also improves viral survival Hidden culprit in heart failure Study suggests how to treat diastolic heart failure Mutation in sodium-potassium pump: Newly discovered serious disease in children Viral production is not essential for deaths caused by food-borne pathogen Cancer: Drug fights formation of metastasis Uncovering more options in cancer immunotherapy Giving Cas9 an 'on' switch for better control of CRISPR gene editing CRISPR study reveals new immune system regulators Cardiovascular diseases and nutrition in Europe: A lot of premature deaths preventable Chirality in 'real-time' New dynamic probes for ions interacting with biomolecules The science is clear: with HIV, undetectable equals untransmittable New strategy may curtail spread of antibiotic resistance Speeding up genetic diagnosis of Huntington's disease Neuroimaging shows social exclusion spurs extremism in those vulnerable to radicalization Mobile, instant diagnosis of viruses Unconventional immune cells trigger disturbed cytokine production in human spondyloarthritis Lung neuropeptide exacerbates lethal influenza virus infection Malaria vaccine passes test in humans Expression of a molecule in blood cells predicts atherosclerosis risk Women with IBD are at greater risk of mental illness How much is too much? Even moderate alcohol consumption is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation Sex differences in 'body clock' may benefit women's heart health Newly discovered leukodystrophy in children: Potential cure Child abuse linked to risk of suicide in later life HRT tablets associated with increased risk of blood clots Seeing soda's influence First smartphone app to detect opioid overdose and its precursors Illuminating women's role in the creation of medieval manuscripts

High intake of dietary fiber and whole grains associated with reduced risk of non-communicable diseases

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 03:47 PM PST

Observational studies and clinical trials conducted over nearly 40 years reveal the health benefits of eating at least 25g to 29g or more of dietary fiber a day, according to a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Researchers correct genetic mutation that causes IPEX, a life-threatening autoimmune syndrome

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 02:10 PM PST

Researchers have created a method for modifying blood stem cells to reverse the genetic mutation that causes a life-threatening autoimmune syndrome called IPEX.

Perceptions of chronic fatigue syndrome in the emergency department

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 02:10 PM PST

Findings from a novel online questionnaire of people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) suggest the majority of these patients do not receive proper care, say researchers.

AI approach outperformed human experts in identifying cervical precancer

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 01:47 PM PST

A research team has developed a computer algorithm that can analyze digital images of a woman's cervix and accurately identify precancerous changes that require medical attention. This artificial intelligence (AI) approach, called automated visual evaluation, has the potential to revolutionize cervical cancer screening, particularly in low-resource settings.

Experimental antibody 'cocktail' protects animals from three deadly Ebola viruses

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 01:09 PM PST

Scientists have developed a combination of monoclonal antibodies that protected animals from all three Ebola viruses that cause human disease. The antibody 'cocktail,' called MBP134, is the first experimental treatment to protect monkeys against Ebola virus (formerly known as Ebola Zaire), as well as Sudan virus and Bundibugyo virus, and could lead to a broadly effective therapeutic.

Madariaga virus spreads to Haiti

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 11:18 AM PST

Madariaga virus (MADV), or South American eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), has -- until now -- been found primarily in animals of South and Central America, with the first human outbreak occurring in Panama in 2010. Now, scientists report the identification of MADV in eight children in Haiti in 2015 and 2016.

Bacteria help discover human cancer-causing proteins

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 11:18 AM PST

Researchers applied an unconventional approach that used bacteria to discover human proteins that can lead to DNA damage and promote cancer.

A human model to test implants for cataract surgery

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 11:18 AM PST

New research uses an improved laboratory model to simulate cataract surgery on human donor eyes.

Targeting an RNA-binding protein to fight aging

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 11:18 AM PST

Researchers have found that the RNA-binding protein PUM2 contributes to the accumulation of defective mitochondria, a key feature of the aging process. Targeting PUM2 in old animals protects against age-related mitochondrial dysfunction.

New role for brain's support cells in controlling circadian rhythms

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 11:18 AM PST

A new study has found that astrocytes, previously thought of as just supporting neurons in regulating circadian rhythms, can actually lead the tempo of the body's internal clock and have been shown for the first time to be able to control patterns of daily behavior in mammals.

Using genetics of human fat cells to predict response to anti-diabetes drugs

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 11:18 AM PST

Researchers have demonstrated -- using fat cells derived from human stem cells -- that individual genetic variation can be used to predict whether the TZD rosiglitazone will produce the unwanted side effect of increasing cholesterol levels in certain individuals.

Researchers reveal active-state structure of popular drug target for blood pressure

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 11:18 AM PST

Researchers have mapped the active-state structure of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor, the target of widely prescribed drugs to regulate blood pressure and kidney function.

Men and women remember pain differently

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 11:18 AM PST

Scientists increasingly believe that one of the driving forces in chronic pain -- the number one health problem in both prevalence and burden -- appears to be the memory of earlier pain. Research suggests that there may be variations, based on sex, in the way that pain is remembered in both mice and humans.

Disconnect between brain's dopamine system and cocaine addiction

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 11:18 AM PST

Researchers have revealed significant insight into cocaine addiction, a phenomenon which has grown significantly in the United States since 2015.

Bioinspired nanoscale drug delivery method

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 11:18 AM PST

Researchers have developed a novel way to deliver drugs and therapies into cells at the nanoscale without causing toxic effects that have stymied other such efforts. The work could someday lead to more effective therapies and diagnostics for cancer and other illnesses.

Decades-old question about protein found in Alzheimer's brain plaques

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 11:17 AM PST

Alzheimer's-affected brains are riddled with so-called amyloid plaques: protein aggregates consisting mainly of amyloid-beta. However, this amyloid-beta is a fragment produced from a precursor protein whose normal function has remained enigmatic for decades. A team of scientists has now uncovered that this amyloid precursor protein modulates neuronal signal transmission through binding to a specific receptor. Modulating this receptor could potentially help treat Alzheimer's or other brain diseases.

HIV protein function that slows migration of T cells also improves viral survival

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 11:17 AM PST

A new study has identified the specific function of a protein found in HIV and related viruses that, after slowing down viral spread in the earliest stages of infection, may help the virus survive later on by evading the immune response.

Hidden culprit in heart failure

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 11:17 AM PST

Scientists have pinpointed a hidden culprit that leads to dilated cardiomyopathy -- a dangerous condition that accounts for 20 per cent of all cases of heart failure -- which opens the door to potential new treatments that could help counter the threat.

Study suggests how to treat diastolic heart failure

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 11:17 AM PST

New research uncovers what causes diastolic heart failure and how it can be treated.

Mutation in sodium-potassium pump: Newly discovered serious disease in children

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 11:17 AM PST

Researchers have mapped out a newly discovered serious disease which causes children to suffer epileptic seizures, loss of magnesium in urine and reduced intelligence.

Viral production is not essential for deaths caused by food-borne pathogen

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 11:16 AM PST

The replication of a bacterial virus is not necessary to cause lethal disease in mice infected with a food-borne pathogen called Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), according to a new study. The surprising findings could lead to the development of novel strategies for the treatment of EHEC and life-threatening kidney-related complications in children.

Cancer: Drug fights formation of metastasis

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 08:30 AM PST

The most deadly aspect of breast cancer is metastasis. It spreads cancer cells throughout the body. Researchers have now discovered a substance that suppresses the formation of metastases.

Uncovering more options in cancer immunotherapy

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 08:30 AM PST

If scientists want to boost immune cells' ability to kill cancer cells, then vast libraries of small molecules are potentially available. A new paper shows a platform to sort through them, plus validation. One of the hits: IAP antagonist birinapant, which is already in clinical trials (coincidentally).

Giving Cas9 an 'on' switch for better control of CRISPR gene editing

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 08:29 AM PST

Scientists have created an 'on' switch for CRISPR-Cas9 that allows it to be turned on in select cells only, specifically those that have a particular protein-cutting enzyme, or protease. Viruses produce such proteases, as do cancer cells, so the Cas9 variants -- called ProCas9 -- could be used as sensors for viral infections or cancer. The variants were discovered by circular permutations on wild-type Cas9 designed to produce a stripped-down Cas9 tuned to human cells.

CRISPR study reveals new immune system regulators

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 08:29 AM PST

Scientists have created the first retroviral CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing library to explore the regulation of mouse T cells, which are key cells in the immune system. Researchers mapped the most important genes for controlling T helper cells, and identified several new regulatory genes. The results could help researchers develop new treatments to activate the immune system against tumours or infection.

Cardiovascular diseases and nutrition in Europe: A lot of premature deaths preventable

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 08:29 AM PST

Of the 4.3 million cardiovascular deaths in Europe in 2016, 2.1 million were the result of poor nutrition. The 28 EU member states account for around 900,000, Russia for 600,000 and the Ukraine for 250,000 of these deaths. Every second to third premature cardiovascular death could be prevented by better nutrition.

Chirality in 'real-time'

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 08:29 AM PST

Distinguishing between left-handed and right-handed ('chiral') molecules is crucial in chemistry and the life sciences, and is commonly done using a method called circular dichroism. However, during biochemical reactions the chiral character of molecules may change. Scientists have for the first time developed a method that uses ultrashort deep-ultraviolet pulses to accurately probe such changes in real-time in (bio)molecular systems.

New dynamic probes for ions interacting with biomolecules

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 08:29 AM PST

Pairs of negatively charged phosphate groups and positive magnesium ions represent a key structural feature of DNA and RNA embedded in water. Vibrations of phosphate groups have now been established as selective probes of such contact pairs and allow for a mapping of interactions and structure on the ultrafast time scales of molecular dynamics.

The science is clear: with HIV, undetectable equals untransmittable

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 08:29 AM PST

An overwhelming body of clinical evidence has firmly established the HIV Undetectable = Untransmittable (U=U) concept as scientifically sound. U=U means that people living with HIV who achieve and maintain an undetectable viral load -- the amount of HIV in the blood -- by taking and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) as prescribed cannot sexually transmit the virus to others. NIAID officials review the scientific evidence underlying U=U and discuss implications of widespread acceptance of the message.

New strategy may curtail spread of antibiotic resistance

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 07:14 AM PST

In studying a bacterium that causes disease in hospitalized people, researchers have figured out a key step in the transmission of antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another. Their insight suggests a new strategy for stopping the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Speeding up genetic diagnosis of Huntington's disease

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 07:14 AM PST

Elongated segments of DNA cause Huntington's disease and certain other disorders of the brain. Researchers have developed a method to determine the length of the mutated genes quickly and easily.

Neuroimaging shows social exclusion spurs extremism in those vulnerable to radicalization

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 07:14 AM PST

A new study used neuroimaging techniques to show that social exclusion increases the number of ideological and group values worth fighting and dying for in populations vulnerable to radicalization. The study focused on neural activity in a region of the brain related to rule retrieval and sacred values. The results can help guide policies and actions capable of counteracting vulnerability to radicalization and propensity to violent extremism.

Mobile, instant diagnosis of viruses

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 07:14 AM PST

In a first for plant virology, a team from CIRAD recently used nanopore technology to sequence the entire genomes of two yam RNA viruses. This as yet little-used but promising molecular biology technique paves the way for new tools for field diagnosis of plant, animal and human diseases.

Unconventional immune cells trigger disturbed cytokine production in human spondyloarthritis

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 06:39 AM PST

Spondyloarthritis is one of the most common types of chronic joint inflammation affecting nearly 1-2 percent of the Western population. Scientists report that rare populations of unconventional T cells may account for this intriguing clinical observation.

Lung neuropeptide exacerbates lethal influenza virus infection

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 06:39 AM PST

Researchers found that lung immune cells (phagocytes) produce increased levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) when mice are infected with severe influenza virus. NPY and its receptor form the NPY-Y1R axis. In mice with influenza, activation of this axis causes excess pulmonary inflammation and viral replication, leading to increased disease severity. Deactivation of NPY, Y1R or their downstream effects was found to mitigate disease severity. These pathways could be targets for novel anti-influenza medicines.

Malaria vaccine passes test in humans

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 06:39 AM PST

A vaccine against fatal pregnancy malaria shows promising results in the first tests in humans. The new study has taken a vaccine all the way from discovery of a mechanism through development and production to clinical trials in humans.

Expression of a molecule in blood cells predicts atherosclerosis risk

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 05:48 AM PST

Scientists have found that the expression level of the molecule CD69 in blood cells inversely predicts the appearance of subclinical atherosclerosis (developing before symptoms appear) independently of classical cardiovascular risk factors.

Women with IBD are at greater risk of mental illness

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 05:27 AM PST

A study shows that women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at greater risk of developing a mental illness after giving birth compared to the overall population. Study authors found that more than one-fifth of pregnant women with IBD had a new-onset mental health diagnosis. For every 43 pregnancies, there is one extra case of mental illness in a woman with IBD, compared to other women.

How much is too much? Even moderate alcohol consumption is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 05:27 AM PST

Excessive alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF), but what are the effects of moderate and mild consumption on AF? In a new study, researchers showed that regular moderate alcohol consumption results in more electrical evidence of scarring and impairments in electrical signaling compared with non-drinkers and light drinkers.

Sex differences in 'body clock' may benefit women's heart health

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 05:26 AM PST

Research suggests that a gene that governs the body's biological (circadian) clock acts differently in males versus females and may protect females from heart disease. The study is the first to analyze circadian blood pressure rhythms in female mice.

Newly discovered leukodystrophy in children: Potential cure

Posted: 10 Jan 2019 05:26 AM PST

Medical researchers have uncovered a novel disease of children affecting the brain white matter -- the myelin sheath --, leading to severe incapacity and death in some cases. These defects were corrected by a treatment with fingolimod, a drug in use for multiple sclerosis which interferes with this pathway.

Child abuse linked to risk of suicide in later life

Posted: 09 Jan 2019 04:25 PM PST

Children who experience physical, sexual, and emotional abuse or neglect are at least two to three times more likely to attempt suicide in later life, according to the largest research review carried out of the topic.

HRT tablets associated with increased risk of blood clots

Posted: 09 Jan 2019 03:47 PM PST

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) tablets are associated with a higher risk of rare but serious blood clots (known as venous thromboembolism or VTE), finds a large study.

Seeing soda's influence

Posted: 09 Jan 2019 03:47 PM PST

A complex network of research funding, institutional ties and personal influence has allowed the Coca-Cola Company, through its connections with a nonprofit group, to exert substantial influence over obesity science and policy solutions in China, a new study has found.

First smartphone app to detect opioid overdose and its precursors

Posted: 09 Jan 2019 11:27 AM PST

Researchers have developed a cellphone app that uses sonar to monitor someone's breathing rate and sense when an opioid overdose has occurred.

Illuminating women's role in the creation of medieval manuscripts

Posted: 09 Jan 2019 11:26 AM PST

Researchers have revealed direct evidence of medieval women's involvement in the production of illuminated manuscripts. Lapis lazuli in the dental calculus of a woman buried at a 12th-century German monastery suggests that she created richly illustrated religious texts.

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