ScienceDaily: Latest Science News

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ScienceDaily: Latest Science News


Sleep loss linked to nighttime snacking, junk food cravings, obesity, diabetes
Where the brain processes spiritual experiences
AI-based method could speed development of specialized nanoparticles
Link between bacteria metabolism and communication could pave way for new drugs
Earliest European evidence of lead pollution uncovered in the Balkans
Study tracks Title IX use across US colleges and universities
Polymer researchers discover path to sustainable and biodegradable polyesters
Weight changes associated with reduced bone strength
How just drops of viper venom pack a deadly punch
How to achieve a peaceful coexistence between wolves and humans
'Multiomics' and the newborn mouse heart
How emotions in facial expressions are understood
New surgery for groin pain found to be more effective than physiotherapy
Zn-InsP6 complex can enhance excretion of radioactive strontium from the body
When push comes to shove: Airway cells propel liver cancer spread to lungs
New technology for enzyme design
Reconstructing longest American water level, instrumented flood record, in Boston Harbor
New approach boosts effort to scale up biodiversity monitoring
Atomically thin nanowires convert heat to electricity more efficiently
New perspectives on African migration
Breakthrough in controlling DNA-based robots
Finances are a major motivating factor in patient avoidance of diagnostic testing
Brain activity patterns underlying fluent speech revealed
NASA soil moisture data advances global crop forecasts
Despite fewer looking for work, gains continue for Americans with disabilities
Novel microscopy technique developed to analyze cellular focal adhesion dynamics
How might baking soda boost cancer therapy?
Wait for it: Serotonin and confidence at the root of patience in new study
Most hospitals now require workers to get flu shots -- except those that treat veterans
One in every 5 deaths in young adults is opioid-related in the United States
Pitcher injuries increase as pitch count rises
Dieting associated with risky behaviors in teenage girls
New machine learning approach could accelerate bioengineering
Walking faster could make you live longer
Scientists develop material that could regenerate dental enamel
Direct visualization of dynamic structures of protein disaggregation molecular machines
Cautious prawns win battle for food
UAV aircrafts provide new insights into the formation of the smallest particles in Arctic
Structure of protein pair provides blueprint for future drugs
New hope for fight against genetically determined obesity
A power failure in your fat cells could short-circuit your health
Green tea molecule could prevent heart attacks
Discovery reveals how cells try to control levels of key HIV protein
Price competition for generic drugs linked to increase in manufacturing-related recalls
Dormant cytomegalovirus resides in eyes of healthy mice long after infection
Research reveals how the same foods create markedly different environmental impacts
Synthetic 'tissues' build themselves


Sleep loss linked to nighttime snacking, junk food cravings, obesity, diabetes



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 02:19 PM PDT


Nighttime snacking and junk food cravings may contribute to unhealthy eating behaviors and represent a potential link between poor sleep and obesity.


Where the brain processes spiritual experiences



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 02:00 PM PDT


Scientists have identified a possible neurobiological home for the spiritual experience -- the sense of connection to something greater than oneself.


AI-based method could speed development of specialized nanoparticles



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 01:04 PM PDT


Researchers have used a computational neural network, a form of artificial intelligence, to 'learn' how a nanoparticle's structure affects the way it scatters light, based on thousands of examples. The approach may help physicists tackle research problems in ways that could be orders of magnitude faster than existing methods.


Link between bacteria metabolism and communication could pave way for new drugs



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 01:04 PM PDT


New research shows that LsrK forms a complex with HPr, a protein involved in glucose utilization in E. coli.


Earliest European evidence of lead pollution uncovered in the Balkans



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 01:04 PM PDT


New research has revealed that metal-related pollution began in the Balkans more than 500 years before it appeared in western Europe, and persisted throughout the Dark Ages and Medieval Period, meaning the region played a far bigger role in mineral exploitation than previously believed.


Study tracks Title IX use across US colleges and universities



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 01:04 PM PDT


Title IX -- the US civil rights law passed in 1972 that prohibits sex discrimination in federally funded education programs -- has been widely recognized as a crucial step toward gender equality in America. A new study tracks the changing use of Title IX over time in response to perceived gender disparities, and for the first time, systematically analyzes how the law has been mobilized at the federal level through complaints filed against four-year non-profit colleges and universities.


Polymer researchers discover path to sustainable and biodegradable polyesters



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 01:04 PM PDT


Researchers have synthesized a biodegradable alternative to polyolefins using a new catalyst and the polyester polymer, and this breakthrough could eventually have a profound impact on sustainability efforts.


Weight changes associated with reduced bone strength



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 01:04 PM PDT


Researchers have found evidence that weight loss can result in worsening bone density, bone architecture and bone strength.


How just drops of viper venom pack a deadly punch



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 01:04 PM PDT


Researchers at a large producer of antivenoms report a structural analysis of glycans modifying venom proteins in several species of lancehead viper. The snakes are among the most dangerous in South America. The report offers insight into the solubility and stability of toxic proteins from venom, and into how venoms from different species vary. Scientists are now working to map glycan structures back onto the proteins they modify.


How to achieve a peaceful coexistence between wolves and humans



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:48 AM PDT


The persecution of wolves in order to remove them from human settlements has culminated in their near-disappearance in numerous European countries, like Spain and Sweden. Following a recovery of the species, a team of scientists has determined what geographic areas in the Scandinavian country would be most suitable for a redistribution of the specie's range, in the interests of increasing the social acceptance of wolves.


'Multiomics' and the newborn mouse heart



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:48 AM PDT


The heart of a neonatal mouse is capable of self-repair after tissue damage. However, this ability disappears during the first week of life. Researchers have investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying myocardial regenerative ability. Advantages within the field could be of benefit, for example, in the development of novel treatments for patients to regain heart function after myocardial infarction.


How emotions in facial expressions are understood



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:48 AM PDT


New research reveals how well fearful facial expressions are perceived in peripheral vision. Although human vision has the highest resolution when we look directly at something, we see a much wider view of the visual world in our lower resolution peripheral vision. In fact, detecting signals of potential danger in our periphery - especially moving ones - is something our visual system is well adapted for.


New surgery for groin pain found to be more effective than physiotherapy



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:48 AM PDT


As the FIFA World Cup approaches researchers have found that keyhole surgery could help get injured footballers back on the pitch faster than physiotherapy-led treatments. The team has analysed two treatments for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome which refers to a problem with the hip's ball and socket joint.


Zn-InsP6 complex can enhance excretion of radioactive strontium from the body



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:48 AM PDT


Researchers have found a new phenomenon that a complex of myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate (InsP6) with zinc enhances excretion of radioactive strontium from the body.


When push comes to shove: Airway cells propel liver cancer spread to lungs



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:48 AM PDT


Researchers identified a crucial role for air sac-based scavenger blood cells, alveolar macrophages (AMs), in driving hepatocellular cancer metastasis in the lungs. AMs were found to be recruited by interstitial macrophages (IMs) through interactions between the IM-expressed signaling molecule CCL2 and its AM-expressed receptor. AMs then secrete leukotriene B4, which promotes tumor cell growth. This is the first evidence for the distinct roles of AMs and IMs in liver cell lung metastasis.


New technology for enzyme design



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:47 AM PDT


Scientists have chemically modified the enzyme levansucrase using a new method. The enzyme can now produce sugar polymers that are exciting for applications in the food industry and medicine.


Reconstructing longest American water level, instrumented flood record, in Boston Harbor



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:47 AM PDT


Using newly-discovered archival measurements to construct an instrumental record of water levels and storm tides in Boston since 1825, researchers report that local averaged relative sea level rose by nearly a foot (0.28 meters) over the past 200 years, with the greatest increase occurring since 1920. The work also highlights tides and their significant effect on flooding in the city.


New approach boosts effort to scale up biodiversity monitoring



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:47 AM PDT


The value of ecological biodiversity for maintaining ecosystem stability and function is well established, but a recent study points to a novel way to fine-tune our ability to measure it at larger scales.


Atomically thin nanowires convert heat to electricity more efficiently



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:47 AM PDT


Waste heat can be converted to electricity more efficiently using one-dimensional nanoscale materials as thin as an atom -- ushering a new way of generating sustainable energy -- thanks to new research.


New perspectives on African migration



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:47 AM PDT


Scientists have analyzed past and present migration patterns from and within Africa, and the drivers behind them.


Breakthrough in controlling DNA-based robots



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:47 AM PDT


Researchers have devised a magnetic control system to make tiny DNA-based robots move on demand -- and much faster than recently possible.


Finances are a major motivating factor in patient avoidance of diagnostic testing



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:47 AM PDT


Patient preferences for diagnostic testing differed significantly across levels of risk, benefit, and cost of diagnostic testing, but cost was the strongest and most consistent factor associated with decreased desire for testing.


Brain activity patterns underlying fluent speech revealed



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:47 AM PDT


When we speak, we engage nearly 100 muscles, continuously moving our lips, jaw, tongue, and throat to shape our breath into the fluent sequences of sounds that form our words and sentences. A new study reveals how these complex articulatory movements are coordinated in the brain.


NASA soil moisture data advances global crop forecasts



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:47 AM PDT


Data from the first NASA satellite mission dedicated to measuring the water content of soils is now being used operationally by the US Department of Agriculture to monitor global croplands and make commodity forecasts.


Despite fewer looking for work, gains continue for Americans with disabilities



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:47 AM PDT


Job gains continued for Americans with disabilities in May, although fewer were looking for work.


Novel microscopy technique developed to analyze cellular focal adhesion dynamics



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:47 AM PDT


Researchers have developed a new form of microscopy that allows them to observe the formation and evolution of cell membrane focal adhesions.


How might baking soda boost cancer therapy?



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:47 AM PDT


A new study has uncovered an entirely novel mechanism by which cells enter a state of dormancy as tissues starved of oxygen become increasingly acidic.


Wait for it: Serotonin and confidence at the root of patience in new study



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:47 AM PDT


Serotonin keeps mice hanging on if they are sure of getting rewards, but not sure when.


Most hospitals now require workers to get flu shots -- except those that treat veterans



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:47 AM PDT


A new study shows a rapid rise in the percentage of hospitals that require their workers to be vaccinated against influenza -- except among hospitals that focus on treating the nation's military veterans. The percentage of Veterans Affairs hospitals that have a flu vaccine mandate rose from 1 percent in 2013 to 4 percent in 2017. But at the same time, the percentage of non-VA hospitals requiring shots rose from 44 percent to nearly 70 percent.


One in every 5 deaths in young adults is opioid-related in the United States



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:47 AM PDT


One out of every five deaths among young adults in the United States is related to opioids, suggests a new study.


Pitcher injuries increase as pitch count rises



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 10:47 AM PDT


More than half of high school baseball pitchers report experiencing pain in their throwing arm during the season. To better understand the cause of these injuries, researchers conducted a new study to determine when and why overuse injuries were occurring.


Dieting associated with risky behaviors in teenage girls



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 06:38 AM PDT


Teenage girls who diet are more likely to engage in other health-compromising behaviors, including smoking, binge drinking, and skipping breakfast, a study recently found.


New machine learning approach could accelerate bioengineering



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 06:38 AM PDT


Scientists have developed a way to use machine learning to dramatically accelerate the design of microbes that produce biofuel.


Walking faster could make you live longer



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 06:38 AM PDT


Researchers call for walking pace to be emphasized in public health messages, as analysis of over 50,000 walkers finds a faster pace is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality.


Scientists develop material that could regenerate dental enamel



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 06:38 AM PDT


Researchers have developed a new way to grow mineralized materials which could regenerate hard tissues such as dental enamel and bone.


Direct visualization of dynamic structures of protein disaggregation molecular machines



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 06:38 AM PDT


ClpB, an ATP-fueled protein molecular machine, disentangles and reactivates aggregated proteins. By using high-speed atomic force microscopy, conformational dynamics of ClpB was visualized for the first time. ClpB forms open- and closed-ring, and the closed-ring was further classified into three forms; round, spiral, and twisted-half-spiral. These structures transformed each other during ATPase-cycle to perform protein disaggregation. This research will help to treat protein aggregations, which are related to various diseases and cause problems in industry.


Cautious prawns win battle for food



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 06:38 AM PDT


Prawns have personalities -- and cautious crustaceans do better in the battle for food, new research shows.


UAV aircrafts provide new insights into the formation of the smallest particles in Arctic



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 06:38 AM PDT


Investigations of the atmosphere by means of unmanned mini-airplanes can contribute significantly to the investigation of the causes of Arctic climate change, as they provide an insight into ground-level air layers that are not monitored by other measuring stations.


Structure of protein pair provides blueprint for future drugs



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 06:38 AM PDT


Researchers have visualized for the first time how the protein SOCS1 'switches off' cell signalling to dampen immune responses and block cancer growth. The atomic-level structure of SOCS1 binding to its partner protein JAK could guide the development of drugs that alter disease-causing cell signalling pathways, and may have applications for treating some blood cancers, including leukaemias.


New hope for fight against genetically determined obesity



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 06:38 AM PDT


A large group of people with obesity have a genetic mutation that is causing their obesity. Common treatments for obesity only benefit these people to a limited extent, but now a new study conducted at the University of Copenhagen reveals that they can be treated effectively with the medicine liraglutide, which is a GLP-1 receptor agonist.


A power failure in your fat cells could short-circuit your health



Posted: 01 Jun 2018 06:37 AM PDT


The energy metabolism of the body's so-called brown fat cells is controlled by the fat molecule cardiolipin, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have discovered in a new study. The research reveals that absence of cardiolipin in fat cells is causally linked to pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes.


Green tea molecule could prevent heart attacks



Posted: 31 May 2018 04:08 PM PDT


Scientists have discovered that a compound found in green tea, currently being studied for its ability to reduce amyloid plaques in the brain in Alzheimer's disease, also breaks up and dissolves potentially dangerous protein plaques found in the blood vessels.


Discovery reveals how cells try to control levels of key HIV protein



Posted: 31 May 2018 11:31 AM PDT


Scientists uncover potential new targets for antiviral drugs using novel laboratory method.


Price competition for generic drugs linked to increase in manufacturing-related recalls



Posted: 31 May 2018 11:30 AM PDT


Researchers have found that extreme price competition in the generic pharmaceutical market -- designed to make medications more affordable -- may be putting more patients at serious health risk, as evidenced by a higher number of product recalls caused by manufacturing-related problems.


Dormant cytomegalovirus resides in eyes of healthy mice long after infection



Posted: 31 May 2018 11:30 AM PDT


Infection with cytomegalovirus triggers long-lasting eye inflammation and establishes a dormant pool of the virus in the eyes of mice with healthy immune systems, according to new research.


Research reveals how the same foods create markedly different environmental impacts



Posted: 31 May 2018 11:30 AM PDT


New research highlights the environmental impacts of thousands of food producers and their products, demonstrating the need for new technology to monitor agriculture and environmental labels on food products.


Synthetic 'tissues' build themselves



Posted: 31 May 2018 11:30 AM PDT


How do complex biological structures -- an eye, a hand, a brain -- emerge from a single fertilized egg? This is the fundamental question of developmental biology, and a mystery still being grappled with by scientists who hope to one day apply the same principles to heal damaged tissues or regrow ailing organs.
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