ScienceDaily: Latest Science News

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ScienceDaily: Latest Science News


NASA finds ancient organic material, mysterious methane on Mars
Cattle may spread leptospirosis in Africa, study suggests
New computational tool predicts progression of metabolic syndrome in mice
Cattle, sheep and goats may transmit leptospirosis to humans in Tanzania
Active HIV in large white blood cells may drive cognitive impairment in infected mice
New laser makes silicon 'sing'
Bees understand the concept of zero
Tipping point for large-scale social change
Threat of malaria left its mark on the immune system in people with African ancestry
Blood test for pregnant women can predict premature birth
Waves move across the human brain to support memory
Sleep problems in Parkinson's disease: Can we fix them?
Tonsil and adenoid removal associated with respiratory, allergic and infectious disease
Structural protein found essential to X chromosome inactivation
Widespread uranium contamination found in India's groundwater
Teen pregnancy and birth rates at an all time low in Minn.
Letters of recommendation for women more likely to raise doubts
Gulf of Mexico 'dead zone' forecasted to exceed the size of Connecticut
Scientists ID source of damaging inflammation after heart attack
Tiny paragliding beetle that lived with dinosaurs discovered in amber, named 'Jason'
Maps made of nerve cells
Study develops a model enhancing particle beam efficiency
Customized resistance exercise a factor for success with fibromyalgia
Using mathematical approaches to optimally manage public debt
Jurassic diet: Why our knowledge of what ancient pterosaurs ate might be wrong
How to suck carbon dioxide from the sky for fuels and more
In male dolphin alliances, 'everybody knows your name'
Study of sleeping fur seals provides insight into the function of REM sleep
Providers preferences may be helpful in reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions
The disc of the Milky Way is bigger than we thought
Evolution of nebula surrounding symbiotic star R Aquarii
One of the most massive neutron stars ever discovered
Multiple alkali metals in unique exoplanet
Breaking through a tumor's defenses
How solar prominences vibrate
System with three Earth-sized planets discovered
New model sheds light on key physics of magnetic islands that halt fusion reactions
Algal partner responds to climate-change stresses more strongly than coral host
In a hole in a tunicate there lived a hobbit: New shrimp species named after Bilbo Baggins
Physicists developed self-propelled droplets that can act as programmable micro-carriers
Normal eye dominance is not necessary for restoring visual acuity in amblyopia
In building the brain, cell pedigree matters
Scientists use 4D scanning to predict behavior of volcanoes
Australian lizard scares away predators with ultra-violet tongue
Researchers change clinical practice for infants with diabetes
Bad news becomes hysteria in crowds, new research shows
Astronomers find a galaxy unchanged since the early universe
The Clarke exobelt, a method to search for possible extraterrestrial civilizations
Does nanoconfinement affect the interaction between two materials placed in contact?
Discovery of clusters of galaxies in the early universe
Aircraft microbiome much like that of homes and offices, study finds
A laser that can smell like a hound
Machine learning helps detect lymphedema among breast cancer survivors
Essential oils to fight bacterial infections
High vitamin D levels linked to lower cholesterol in children
Sharing spaces: Your brain considers other people's personal space as your own
Dark inflation opens up a gravitational window onto the first moments after the Big Bang
Dolphins deliberately killed for use as bait in global fisheries
Half of hepatitis C patients with private insurance denied life-saving drugs
Negative vs. positive social media experiences and depressive symptoms


NASA finds ancient organic material, mysterious methane on Mars



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 11:29 AM PDT


NASA's Curiosity rover has found new evidence preserved in rocks on Mars that suggests the planet could have supported ancient life, as well as new evidence in the Martian atmosphere that relates to the search for current life on the Red Planet.


Cattle may spread leptospirosis in Africa, study suggests



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 11:10 AM PDT


The bacterial infection leptospirosis is increasingly recognized as an important cause of fever in Africa. Now, researchers have analyzed the major risk factors for contracting leptospirosis and discovered that rice and cattle farming are associated with acute infection.


New computational tool predicts progression of metabolic syndrome in mice



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 11:10 AM PDT


Scientists have developed a new computational model that accurately predicts the gradual, long-term progression of metabolic syndrome in mice.


Cattle, sheep and goats may transmit leptospirosis to humans in Tanzania



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 11:10 AM PDT


Leptospirosis, which affects more than one million people worldwide each year, is known to be transmitted to humans from a wide range of animals. Now, researchers have discovered that more than 7 percent of the cattle and 1 percent of sheep and goats in local slaughterhouses in northern Tanzania are infected with Leptospira bacteria.


Active HIV in large white blood cells may drive cognitive impairment in infected mice



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 11:10 AM PDT


Macrophages, large white blood cells that engulf and destroy potential pathogens, harbor active viral reserves that appear to play a key role in impaired learning and memory in mice infected with a rodent version of HIV.


New laser makes silicon 'sing'



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 11:10 AM PDT


Scientists have created a new type of silicon laser that uses sounds waves to amplify light.


Bees understand the concept of zero



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 11:10 AM PDT


Scientists have discovered honeybees can understand the concept of zero, putting them in an elite club of clever animals that can grasp the abstract mathematical notion of nothing.


Tipping point for large-scale social change



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 11:10 AM PDT


A new study finds that when 25 percent of people in a group adopt a new social norm, it creates a tipping point where the entire group follows suit. This shows the direct causal effect of the size of a committed minority on its capacity to create social change.


Threat of malaria left its mark on the immune system in people with African ancestry



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 11:08 AM PDT


Researchers have identified a genetic difference between people with African and European ancestry that affects how the immune system triggers inflammation. They suspect these differences are rooted in how the immune system evolved and the evolutionary pressure exerted by malaria on ancestors who lived in Africa.


Blood test for pregnant women can predict premature birth



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 11:08 AM PDT


A new blood test for pregnant women detects with 75-80 percent accuracy whether their pregnancies will end in premature birth. The technique can also be used to estimate a fetus's gestational age -- or the mother's due date -- as reliably as and less expensively than ultrasound.


Waves move across the human brain to support memory



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 10:52 AM PDT


Engineers have discovered a new fundamental feature of brain oscillations: they actually move rhythmically across the brain, reflecting patterns of neuronal activity that propagate across the cortex. The researchers also found that the traveling waves moved more reliably when subjects performed well while performing a working memory task, indicating traveling waves are important for memory and cognition: the waves play a significant role in supporting brain connectivity.


Sleep problems in Parkinson's disease: Can we fix them?



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 10:51 AM PDT


Researchers have uncovered why people with a hereditary form of Parkinson's disease suffer from sleep disturbances. The molecular mechanisms uncovered in fruit flies and human stem cells also point to candidate targets for the development of new treatments.


Tonsil and adenoid removal associated with respiratory, allergic and infectious disease



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 10:51 AM PDT


Removing tonsils and adenoids in childhood increases the long-term risk of respiratory, allergic and infectious diseases, according to researchers who have examined -- for the first time -- the long-term effects of the operations.


Structural protein found essential to X chromosome inactivation



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 10:51 AM PDT


A research team has identified the essential role of a structural protein in the silencing of the inactive X chromosome, a process that prevents both copies of the same gene from being expressed in female mammals, which carry two copies of the X chromosome.


Widespread uranium contamination found in India's groundwater



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 10:37 AM PDT


A new study has found widespread uranium contamination in groundwater aquifers -- a chief source for drinking water and irrigation -- in 16 Indian states. The primary source of the contamination is natural, but human factors such as groundwater-table depletion and nitrate pollution may exacerbate the problem. Studies have linked exposure to uranium in drinking water to chronic kidney disease.


Teen pregnancy and birth rates at an all time low in Minn.



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 10:37 AM PDT


Pregnancy and birth rates continue to decline for 15-19-year-olds in Minnesota, with rates decreasing the most among youth from communities of color. Researchers attribute the decline to a combination of delayed sexual activity and an increase in use of highly effective contraceptive methods among teens.


Letters of recommendation for women more likely to raise doubts



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 10:36 AM PDT


Letters of recommendation written for women are more likely to contain words or phrases that raise doubts about job or education qualifications than letters written for men, according to new research.


Gulf of Mexico 'dead zone' forecasted to exceed the size of Connecticut



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 09:07 AM PDT


Scientists have predicted the dead zone, or area with little to no oxygen in the northern Gulf of Mexico, will become larger than the state of Connecticut by the end of July, according to a new report. While there are more than 500 dead zones around the world, the northern Gulf of Mexico dead zone is the second largest human-caused coastal hypoxic area in the world.


Scientists ID source of damaging inflammation after heart attack



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 09:07 AM PDT


Scientists have zeroed in on a culprit that spurs damaging inflammation in the heart following a heart attack. The guilty party is a type of immune cell that tries to heal the injured heart but instead triggers inflammation that leads to even more damage. The researchers also have found that an already approved drug effectively tamps down such inflammation in mice, protecting the heart from the progressive damage that often occurs after a heart attack.


Tiny paragliding beetle that lived with dinosaurs discovered in amber, named 'Jason'



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 09:07 AM PDT


Featherwing beetles are smaller than the period at the end of this sentence. They get their name from the feathery fringe on their wings that enables them to catch the air and float like dandelion seeds. And, it turns out, they go way back -- scientists discovered a 99-million-year-old featherwing beetle preserved in amber, and they named it "Jason."


Maps made of nerve cells



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 09:07 AM PDT


Mice move through the virtual world of a video game and provide insight into the mechanisms of memory formation.


Study develops a model enhancing particle beam efficiency



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 09:07 AM PDT


Inspired by tokamaks, researchers create via computer simulation an alternative for better control, in accelerators, of the particles' chaotic trajectories.


Customized resistance exercise a factor for success with fibromyalgia



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 09:07 AM PDT


Fibromyalgia and resistance exercise have often been considered an impossible combination. But with proper support and individually adjusted exercises, female patients achieved considerable health improvements, according to new research.


Using mathematical approaches to optimally manage public debt



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:28 AM PDT


Large government debt negatively impacts long-term economic growth and the debt-to-gross domestic product (GDP) ratio is an important indicator of a country's financial leverage. Financial mathematicians propose a mathematical model that helps optimize and control the debt-to-GDP ratio.


Jurassic diet: Why our knowledge of what ancient pterosaurs ate might be wrong



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:28 AM PDT


Research reveals knowledge of prehistoric diets is often based on outdated ideas and could be inaccurate.


How to suck carbon dioxide from the sky for fuels and more



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:27 AM PDT


Someday, the gasoline you buy might come from carbon dioxide pulled out of the sky rather than from oil pumped out of the ground. By removing emitted carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and turning it into fresh fuels, engineers have demonstrated a scalable and cost-effective way to make deep cuts in the carbon footprint of transportation with minimal disruption to existing vehicles.


In male dolphin alliances, 'everybody knows your name'



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:27 AM PDT


It's not uncommon in dolphin society for males to form long-lasting alliances with other males, sometimes for decades. Now, after studying bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia, for more than 30 years, researchers find that these males retain individual vocal labels rather than sharing a common call with their cooperative partners.


Study of sleeping fur seals provides insight into the function of REM sleep



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:27 AM PDT


All land mammals and birds have two types of sleep: rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (also called slow-wave sleep). Earlier evidence had suggested that REM sleep is essential for physical and mental well-being and learning, but the underlying function of REM sleep has been a mystery. New insight into the function of REM sleep, based on studies of an unlikely animal: the fur seal.


Providers preferences may be helpful in reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:27 AM PDT


Physicians are open to receiving information on their antibiotic prescribing patterns, but have specific preference for receiving that information, according to new results. Anticipating physicians' preferences for feedback on antimicrobial use (AU) could help optimize impact of antibiotic stewardship programs and improve the use of antibiotics.


The disc of the Milky Way is bigger than we thought



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:27 AM PDT


A team of researchers suggests that if we could travel at the speed of light it would take us 200,000 years to cross the disc of our Galaxy.


Evolution of nebula surrounding symbiotic star R Aquarii



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:27 AM PDT


Scientists have published a detailed study of the evolution of the nebula surrounding the symbiotic star R Aquarii. The study employed observations from telescopes at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, and Chile taken over the course of more than two decades.


One of the most massive neutron stars ever discovered



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:27 AM PDT


Using a pioneering method, researchers have found a neutron star of about 2.3 Solar masses -- one of the most massive ever detected.


Multiple alkali metals in unique exoplanet



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:27 AM PDT


Scientists have observed a rare gaseous planet, with partly clear skies, and strong signatures of alkali metals in its atmosphere.


Breaking through a tumor's defenses



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:27 AM PDT


Researchers have shown that some tumors use not one but two levels of protection against the immune system. Knocking out one level boosted the protective effects of the second and vice versa. The research demonstrates that a two-pronged approach targeting both cell types simultaneously may offer a promising route for the development of new cancer immunotherapies.


How solar prominences vibrate



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:27 AM PDT


Researchers have cataloged around 200 oscillations of the solar prominences during the first half of 2014. Its development has been possible thanks to the GONG network of telescopes, of which one of them is located in the Teide Observatory.


System with three Earth-sized planets discovered



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:27 AM PDT


Today marks the discovery of two new planetary systems, one of them hosting three planets with the same size of the Earth.


New model sheds light on key physics of magnetic islands that halt fusion reactions



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:27 AM PDT


Magnetic islands, bubble-like structures that form in fusion plasmas, can grow and disrupt the plasmas and damage the doughnut-shaped tokamak facilities that house fusion reactions. Recent research has used large-scale computer simulations to produce a new model that could be key to understanding how the islands interact with the surrounding plasma as they grow and lead to disruptions.


Algal partner responds to climate-change stresses more strongly than coral host



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:26 AM PDT


A new study puts a surprising twist into our understanding of how coral reefs react to ocean warming and acidification and may offer an early warning system for warmth-induced coral bleaching events.


In a hole in a tunicate there lived a hobbit: New shrimp species named after Bilbo Baggins



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:26 AM PDT


A new species of shrimp was named after Tolkien's Bilbo Baggins thanks to its small size and hairy feet. The new species, Odontonia bagginsi, was described, figured and named together with another new species: Odontonia plurellicola. Both shrimps live symbiotically inside tunicates collected around Ternate and Tidore, Indonesia. In the present study anatomical and genetic characters were used to place the new species in the tree of life.


Physicists developed self-propelled droplets that can act as programmable micro-carriers



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:26 AM PDT


In the life sciences, researchers are working to inject drugs or other molecules into a human body using tiny 'transport vehicles.' Researchers have shown in a model system that small emulsion droplets can be used as smart carriers. They have developed a method for producing self-propelled liquid droplets capable of providing spatially and temporally controlled delivery of a 'molecular load'.


Normal eye dominance is not necessary for restoring visual acuity in amblyopia



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:26 AM PDT


Research published today may lead to changes in how amblyopia is treated, particularly in adults. The research shows that eye dominance and visual acuity are controlled by different areas of the brain, and that one can be corrected without correcting the other.


In building the brain, cell pedigree matters



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 08:26 AM PDT


Research in mice shows that a protein made by the stem cells that give rise to neurons, but not by neurons themselves, is key to brain cells' ability to migrate during development and assume their proper positions This primordial protein acts by clinging onto thousands of sites in the genome, affecting the activity of multiple genes that regulate brain development. The findings could yield valuable clues for a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders


Scientists use 4D scanning to predict behavior of volcanoes



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 07:10 AM PDT


Scientists are using the latest in 4D technology to predict the behavior of lava flows and its implications for volcanic eruptions. The results explain why some lava flows can cover kilometers in just a few hours, whilst others travel more slowly during an eruption, highlighting the hazard posed by fast-moving flows which often pose the most danger to civilian populations close to volcanoes.


Australian lizard scares away predators with ultra-violet tongue



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 07:10 AM PDT


Researchers investigate how the blue-tongued skink uses a full-tongue display to deter attacking predators.


Researchers change clinical practice for infants with diabetes



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 07:10 AM PDT


Infants with diabetes can drop insulin syringes. This will be new clinical practice after a recent study. Researchers have been leading the work, which causes children worldwide to replace insulin syringes with tablets.


Bad news becomes hysteria in crowds, new research shows



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 07:10 AM PDT


News stories about terrorism, disease outbreaks, natural disasters, and other potential threats become increasingly negative, inaccurate and hysterical when passed from person to person, according to new research.


Astronomers find a galaxy unchanged since the early universe



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 07:10 AM PDT


Researchers confirm the first detection of a relic galaxy with the Hubble Space Telescope.


The Clarke exobelt, a method to search for possible extraterrestrial civilizations



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 07:10 AM PDT


A new study examines the possibility of detecting hypothetical artificial satellites orbiting around other worlds.


Does nanoconfinement affect the interaction between two materials placed in contact?



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 07:10 AM PDT


Does nanoconfinement affect the interaction between two materials placed in contact? A research team shows that it is possible to estimate how nanoconfinement affects the number of contacts formed by two materials placed in intimate contact and, hence, the interfacial interactions.


Discovery of clusters of galaxies in the early universe



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 07:09 AM PDT


Until now astronomers thought that these phenomena occurred 3,000 million years after the Big Bang, but this new result shows that they were already happening when the Universe was 1,500 million years old.


Aircraft microbiome much like that of homes and offices, study finds



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 07:09 AM PDT


What does flying in a commercial airliner have in common with working at the office or relaxing at home? According to a new study, the answer is the microbiome -- the community of bacteria found in homes, offices and aircraft cabins.


A laser that can smell like a hound



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 07:09 AM PDT


Researchers have created a laser that can 'smell' different gases within a sample. Applications for the new device lie not just in environmental monitoring and detecting industrial contamination, but may eventually be used to diagnose disease by 'smelling' the breath.


Machine learning helps detect lymphedema among breast cancer survivors



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 07:09 AM PDT


Machine learning using real-time symptom reports can accurately detect lymphedema, a distressing side effect of breast cancer treatment that is more easily treated when identified early, finds a new study.


Essential oils to fight bacterial infections



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 07:09 AM PDT


Scientists have discovered a technique to apply natural plant extracts such as Tea Tree Oil as a coating for medical devices, a process which could prevent millions of infections every year.


High vitamin D levels linked to lower cholesterol in children



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 07:09 AM PDT


There is a link between higher serum vitamin D levels and lower plasma cholesterol levels in primary school children, new research shows.


Sharing spaces: Your brain considers other people's personal space as your own



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 07:09 AM PDT


Peripersonal space (PPS) is the area immediately around your body used when interacting with people and objects. Recently, researchers have shown that some neurons in the primate brain respond to an infringement of another individual's PPS as if their own space was being encroached upon. Now, a Japanese researcher studying human behavior has shown that people respond to someone else's PPS as quickly as they do their own.


Dark inflation opens up a gravitational window onto the first moments after the Big Bang



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 07:09 AM PDT


Dark matter and dark energy may have driven inflation, the exponential expansion of the Universe moments after the Big Bang. A new cosmological model proposed by physicists, which takes dark inflation into account, is the first to outline a precise chronology of the main events during the early history of our Universe. The model makes a spectacular prediction: that it should be possible to detect gravitational waves that were formed just fractions of a second after the creation of spacetime.


Dolphins deliberately killed for use as bait in global fisheries



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 05:26 AM PDT


Ahead of World Oceans Day, new research exposes the practice of killing of aquatic mammals, including some listed as endangered, for the express purpose of securing bait for global fisheries. The practice is widespread globally, but most common in Latin America and Asia. The study reveals there is little information on the impact of this harvesting on targeted mammal populations and urges increased monitoring.


Half of hepatitis C patients with private insurance denied life-saving drugs



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 05:26 AM PDT


The number of insurance denials for life-saving hepatitis C drugs among patients with both private and public insurers remains high across the United States. Private insurers had the highest denial rates, with 52.4 percent of patients denied coverage, while Medicaid denied 34.5 percent of patients and Medicare denied 14.7 percent.


Negative vs. positive social media experiences and depressive symptoms



Posted: 07 Jun 2018 05:26 AM PDT


Negative experiences on social media carry more weight than positive interactions when it comes to the likelihood of young adults reporting depressive symptoms, according to a new analysis. The finding may be useful for designing interventions and clinical recommendations to reduce the risk of depression.
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