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ScienceDaily: Latest Science News


Reduction in sulfur emissions from power plants in China
Why being left-handed matters for mental health treatment
Overuse of agricultural chemicals on China's small farms harms health and environment
Increased risk of birth defects in babies after first-trimester exposure to lithium
Coral reef 'oases' offer glimmer of hope
Carbon nanotube optics provide optical-based quantum cryptography and quantum computing
Phoneme project creates new haptic communications future
Scientists isolate protein data from the tiniest of caches -- single human cells
The force is strong within us: New study explores cell mechanics at work
Study on social interactions could improve understanding of mental health risks
Local interventions boost coral's resilience to bleaching
Often overlooked glial cell is key to learning and memory
'Artificial blubber' protects divers in frigid water
Factor important for ZIKA Virus host species restriction
Two new creatures discovered from dawn of animal life
BPA can induce multigenerational effects on ability to communicate
22,000-year-old panda from cave in Southern China belongs to distinct, long-lost lineage
Scientists learn more about how gene linked to autism affects brain
Faster, cheaper, better: A new way to synthesize DNA
Adolescent binge drinking disrupts mouse memory in adulthood
How a moderate dose of alcohol protects the heart
Risky opioid prescriptions linked to higher chance of death
Organic crystals twist, bend, and heal
Are smarter animals bigger troublemakers?
Novel information about the effects of in vitro fertilization on embryonic growth
Best evidence of rare black hole captured
Targeting the engine room of the cancer cell
Neuroscientists map brain's response to cold touch
Cementless fly ash binder makes concrete 'green'
Daily fasting works for weight loss, finds report on 16:8 diet
Meeting Paris climate targets will require a substantial reallocation of global investment
Hunting molecules to find new planets
Chemists achieve major milestone of synthesis: Remote chiral induction
In the gaping mouth of ancient crocodiles
Scientists create continuously emitting microlasers with nanoparticle-coated beads
Odors are perceived the same way by hunter-gatherers and Westerners
Electrical wire properties of DNA linked to cancer
Bolder targets needed to protect nature for people's sake
Novel combination as potential therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma
'Slow earthquakes' on San Andreas Fault increase risk of large quakes
Rare mutation of gene carried by Quebec family gives insight into how the brain is wired
Algorithm speeds up process for analyzing 3D medical images
Laser-sonic scanner aims to replace mammograms for finding breast cancer
When consumers don't want to talk about what they bought
Nature programs could put a spring in your step
Large outdoor study shows biodiversity improves stability of algal biofuel systems
Helicopter parenting may negatively affect children's emotional well-being, behavior
Constructing new tissue shapes with light
When it comes to weight loss in overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis, more is better
Genomics offers new treatment options for infants with range of soft tissue tumors
Devastating plant virus is revealed in atomic detail
New 3D imaging analysis technique could lead to improved arthritis treatment
Rising sea temperatures threaten survival of juvenile albatross
Virtual reality headsets significantly reduce children's fear of needles
Childhood sibling dynamics may predict differences in college education
Pesticide-free way to combat mosquitoes and West Nile
Explosive volcanoes spawned mysterious Martian rock formation
Silence is golden when it comes to how our brains work
Scientists find potential disease-fighting 'warheads' hidden in bacteria
Great white sharks dive deep into warm-water whirlpools in the Atlantic


Reduction in sulfur emissions from power plants in China



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:26 PM PDT


Air pollution has smothered China's cities in recent decades. In response, the Chinese government has implemented measures to clean up its skies. But are those policies effective? Now scholars show that one of China's key antipollution laws is indeed working -- but unevenly, with one particular set of polluters most readily adapting to it.


Why being left-handed matters for mental health treatment



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:26 PM PDT


Treatment for the most common mental health problems could be ineffective or even detrimental to about 50 percent of the population, according to a radical new model of emotion in the brain.


Overuse of agricultural chemicals on China's small farms harms health and environment



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:25 PM PDT


The size of farms in China is a key contributor to the overuse of agricultural chemicals, and as a result they may be too small to be environmentally sustainable, a new study has found.


Increased risk of birth defects in babies after first-trimester exposure to lithium



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:24 PM PDT


Researchers have found an elevated risk of major congenital malformations in fetuses after first-trimester exposure to lithium, in the largest study ever to examine the risk of birth defects in lithium-exposed babies.


Coral reef 'oases' offer glimmer of hope



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:24 PM PDT


Scientists have discovered small communities of corals that are flourishing against the odds while so many around the world are dying.


Carbon nanotube optics provide optical-based quantum cryptography and quantum computing



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:24 PM PDT


Researchers are exploring the enhanced potential of carbon nanotubes as single-photon emitters for quantum information processing.


Phoneme project creates new haptic communications future



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:24 PM PDT


Communication could step beyond reading a cellular phone screen with a new technique by engineering researchers to learn and read messages through a person's sense of touch.


Scientists isolate protein data from the tiniest of caches -- single human cells



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:24 PM PDT


Scientists have captured the most information yet about proteins within a single human cell, giving scientists one of their clearest looks yet at the molecular happenings inside a human cell. The team detected on average more than 650 proteins in each cell -- many times more than conventional techniques capture from single cells.


The force is strong within us: New study explores cell mechanics at work



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:24 PM PDT


A research team focused on measuring the stiffness, bending, twisting and viscosity of individual cells -- focused on a breast cancer cell line -- using all of the most state-of-the art technology at their disposal. How both healthy and cancerous cells respond to this environment -- and whether there are key differences that can be identified for future diagnostic applications was of keen interest to the researchers.


Study on social interactions could improve understanding of mental health risks



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:24 PM PDT


Investigators have released the results of a study that outlines how age, socioeconomic status, and other factors might contribute to social isolation and poorer mental health.


Local interventions boost coral's resilience to bleaching



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:24 PM PDT


Local conservation actions can significantly boost coral's resilience to, and recovery from, climate-induced thermal bleaching by reducing other energy-sapping stresses the coral faces, a new study finds. Scientists found they could reduce the extent of bleaching by half if they removed or reduced populations of coral-eating snails from affected reefs. The coral's recovery from bleaching was also enhanced.


Often overlooked glial cell is key to learning and memory



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:24 PM PDT


Glial cells surround neurons and provide support -- not unlike hospital staff and nurses supporting doctors to keep operations running smoothly. These often-overlooked cells, which include oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, are the most abundant cell types in the central nervous system. But these cells do more than support neurons.


'Artificial blubber' protects divers in frigid water



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:24 PM PDT


A treatment that infuses a conventional neoprene wetsuit with a heavy inert gas can improve a diver's survival time in frigid waters by a factor of three, according to scientists.


Factor important for ZIKA Virus host species restriction



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:24 PM PDT


In 2013 and 2015, devastating outbreaks of ZIKA captured world attention. The virus is often transmitted from wild animals -- probably non-human primates -- via mosquitos to humans. This is the first comprehensive study to investigate which mammal species may host the ZIKA virus (ZIKV).


Two new creatures discovered from dawn of animal life



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 02:48 PM PDT


Earth's first complex animals were an eclectic bunch that lived in the shallow oceans between 580-540 million years ago.


BPA can induce multigenerational effects on ability to communicate



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 02:30 PM PDT


Past studies have shown that biparental care of offspring can be affected negatively when females and males are exposed to bisphenol A (BPA); however, previous studies have not characterized how long-term effects of BPA exposure in grandmothers and grandfathers might affect offspring communication ability.


22,000-year-old panda from cave in Southern China belongs to distinct, long-lost lineage



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 01:38 PM PDT


Researchers who've analyzed ancient mitochondrial (mt)DNA isolated from a 22,000-year-old panda found in Cizhutuo Cave in the Guangxi Province of China -- a place where no pandas live today -- have revealed a new lineage of giant panda. The report shows that the ancient panda separated from present-day pandas 144,000 to 227,000 years ago, suggesting that it belonged to a distinct group not found today.


Scientists learn more about how gene linked to autism affects brain



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 01:38 PM PDT


New preclinical research shows a gene already linked to a subset of people with autism spectrum disorder is critical to healthy neuronal connections in the developing brain, and its loss can harm those connections to help fuel the complex developmental condition. Scientists report their data clarify the biological role of the gene CHD8 and its protein CHD8 in developing oligodendrocytes, cells that form a protective insulation around nerves.


Faster, cheaper, better: A new way to synthesize DNA



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 01:38 PM PDT


Researchers have pioneered a new way to synthesize DNA sequences through a creative use of enzymes that promises to be faster, cheaper, and more accurate. DNA synthesis is a fundamental tool in the rapidly growing field of synthetic biology, in which organisms can be engineered to do things like decompose plastic and manufacture biofuels and medicines. This discovery could dramatically accelerate the pace of scientific discovery.


Adolescent binge drinking disrupts mouse memory in adulthood



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 11:19 AM PDT


Excessive drinking during adolescence may interfere with the activity of brain cells needed for sustaining short term memory, according to new research in adolescent male mice.


How a moderate dose of alcohol protects the heart



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 11:18 AM PDT


Results suggest the effect is associated with activation of the enzyme ALDH2, which helps rid the organism of an aldehyde which is a toxic byproduct of alcohol digestion as much as it is a byproduct of heart cells submitted to stress.


Risky opioid prescriptions linked to higher chance of death



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 11:18 AM PDT


Most people who misuse opioids are first exposed to the drugs through prescriptions so improving prescribing is targeted as one way to help curb the nation's opioid abuse epidemic. A new study identified six types of risky opioid prescriptions and found that all were linked to a higher chance of death, including fatal opioid overdoses. The study found more than 6 percent of Massachusetts adults received a risky opioid prescription during a five-year period.


Organic crystals twist, bend, and heal



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 11:18 AM PDT


Crystals are brittle and inelastic? A novel class of smart, bendable crystalline organic materials has challenged this view. Now, scientists have engineered a molecular soft cocrystalline structure that bends and twists reversibly and without disintegration when stimulated by high temperature, mechanical force, or under UV light. This multifunctional quality makes it a robust candidate for advanced molecular electronics and other new materials.


Are smarter animals bigger troublemakers?



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 11:18 AM PDT


A new paper examines whether smarter animals might be better at learning to live in cities -- but, at the same time, also may come into more conflict with humans.


Novel information about the effects of in vitro fertilization on embryonic growth



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 11:18 AM PDT


In vitro fertilization affects the regulatory region of genes essential for placental and embryonic growth, as well as the birth weight. A new study suggests that the effects depend on genetic variation inherited from the parents. This information could be useful in development of assisted reproduction technologies.


Best evidence of rare black hole captured



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 11:18 AM PDT


Scientists have been able to prove the existence of small black holes and those that are super-massive but the existence of an elusive type of black hole, known as intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is hotly debated. New research shows the strongest evidence to date that this middle-of-the-road black hole exists, by serendipitously capturing one in action devouring an encountering star.


Targeting the engine room of the cancer cell



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 11:18 AM PDT


Researchers have developed a highly innovative computational framework that can support personalized cancer treatment by matching individual tumors with the drugs or drug combinations that are most likely to kill them.


Neuroscientists map brain's response to cold touch



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 11:16 AM PDT


Neuroscientists have mapped the feeling of cool touch to the brain's insula in a mouse model. The findings provide an experimental model that will advance research into conditions like pain and hypersensitivity to cold and help researchers to continue to unravel the multifaceted ways touch is represented in the brain.


Cementless fly ash binder makes concrete 'green'



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 08:30 AM PDT


Engineers have developed a composite binder made primarily of fly ash, a byproduct of coal-fired power plants, that can replace Portland cement in concrete.


Daily fasting works for weight loss, finds report on 16:8 diet



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 08:30 AM PDT


Daily fasting is an effective tool to reduce weight and lower blood pressure, according to a new study that examines the effect of time-restricted eating on weight loss in obese individuals.


Meeting Paris climate targets will require a substantial reallocation of global investment



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 08:30 AM PDT


A new analysis by an international team of scientists shows that low carbon investments will need to markedly increase if the world is to achieve the Paris Agreement aim of keeping global warming well below 2°C.


Hunting molecules to find new planets



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 08:30 AM PDT


It's been impossible to obtain images of an exoplanet, so dazzling is the light of its star. However, astronomers have the idea of detecting molecules that are present in the planet's atmosphere in order to make it visible, provided that these same molecules are absent from its star. Thanks to this innovative technique, the device is sensitive to the selected molecules, making the star invisible and allowing the astronomers to observe the planet.


Chemists achieve major milestone of synthesis: Remote chiral induction



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 08:30 AM PDT


Chemists have addressed one of the most formidable challenges in synthetic chemistry by inventing a method for enabling the making of chiral molecules that were previously difficult or impossible to synthesize.


In the gaping mouth of ancient crocodiles



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 08:30 AM PDT


A new study has endeavoured to further explore the mouth of one of the earliest occurring and least understood groups of crocodilians, the shartegosuchids.


Scientists create continuously emitting microlasers with nanoparticle-coated beads



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 08:30 AM PDT


Researchers have found a way to convert nanoparticle-coated microscopic beads into lasers smaller than red blood cells. These microlasers, which convert infrared light into light at higher frequencies, are among the smallest continuously emitting lasers of their kind ever reported and can constantly and stably emit light for hours at a time, even when submerged in biological fluids such as blood serum.


Odors are perceived the same way by hunter-gatherers and Westerners



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 08:30 AM PDT


Previous research has shown the hunter-gatherer Jahai are much better at naming odors than Westerners. They even have a more elaborate lexicon for it. New research by language scientists show that despite these linguistic differences, the Jahai and Dutch find the same odors pleasant and unpleasant.


Electrical wire properties of DNA linked to cancer



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 08:30 AM PDT


New research finds a connection between a cancer mutation and electron-mediated DNA repair.


Bolder targets needed to protect nature for people's sake



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 08:30 AM PDT


Researchers argue that the world needs more diverse, ambitious and area-specific targets for retaining important natural systems to safeguard humanity.


Novel combination as potential therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 08:30 AM PDT


Researchers at VCU Massey Cancer Center in Richmond, Virginia, have identified a promising target to reverse the development of high-risk neuroblastoma and potentially inform the creation of novel combination therapies for the disease.


'Slow earthquakes' on San Andreas Fault increase risk of large quakes



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 08:28 AM PDT


A detailed study of the California fault has discovered a new kind of movement that isn't accounted for in earthquake forecasting.


Rare mutation of gene carried by Quebec family gives insight into how the brain is wired



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 08:27 AM PDT


The study of a Quebec family with an unusual gene provides novel insight into how our brain is built and, according to scientists, offers a better understanding of psychiatric disorders such as depression, addictions and schizophrenia.


Algorithm speeds up process for analyzing 3D medical images



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 08:27 AM PDT


Researchers describe a machine-learning algorithm that can register brain scans and other 3D images more than 1,000 times more quickly using novel learning techniques.


Laser-sonic scanner aims to replace mammograms for finding breast cancer



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:26 AM PDT


For women over 40, mammography is a necessary yet annoying procedure to endure every year or two. The technique, while valuable for reducing breast cancer deaths, is less than ideal because it exposes patients to X-ray radiation and requires their breasts to be painfully squished between plates. The plates flatten the breast so the X-rays can more easily pass through it and produce a clear image.


When consumers don't want to talk about what they bought



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:26 AM PDT


One of the joys of shopping for many people is the opportunity to brag about their purchases to friends and others. But new research found one common situation in which people would rather not discuss what they just bought: when they're feeling like money is a little tight. In a series of studies, researchers found that consumers who felt financially constrained didn't want to talk about their purchases, large or small, with friends or strangers.


Nature programs could put a spring in your step



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:26 AM PDT


A new study shows that watching films set in a natural environment boosts body image.


Large outdoor study shows biodiversity improves stability of algal biofuel systems



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:26 AM PDT


A diverse mix of species improves the stability and fuel-oil yield of algal biofuel systems, as well as their resistance to invasion by outsiders, according to the new findings.


Helicopter parenting may negatively affect children's emotional well-being, behavior



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:26 AM PDT


It's natural for parents to do whatever they can to keep their children safe and healthy, but children need space to learn and grow on their own, without Mom or Dad hovering over them, according to new research. The study found that overcontrolling parenting can negatively affect a child's ability to manage his or her emotions and behavior.


Constructing new tissue shapes with light



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:26 AM PDT


Constructing biological tissues, such as skin, muscle, or bone, in customized shapes is now one step closer. Researchers have succeeded in guiding the folding and thus shape of tissues with optogenetics: a technique to control protein activity with light.


When it comes to weight loss in overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis, more is better



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:26 AM PDT


Overweight and obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis can reduce pain and significantly improve function and mobility with weight loss. New research reveals that a 20% or more weight loss has the added benefit of continued improvement in physical health-related quality of life along with an additional 25% reduction in pain and improvement in function.


Genomics offers new treatment options for infants with range of soft tissue tumors



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:26 AM PDT


The genetic causes of a group of related infant cancers have been discovered by scientists. Whole genome sequencing of tumours revealed mutations which are targetable by existing drugs used to treat lung cancer and melanoma. The results have implications for clinical practice and the diagnosis of rare cancers in infants, and could lead to new, targeted treatment options for these children.


Devastating plant virus is revealed in atomic detail



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:26 AM PDT


The complex 3D structure of one of the world's most lethal families of plant viruses has been revealed in unprecedented detail by scientists.


New 3D imaging analysis technique could lead to improved arthritis treatment



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:26 AM PDT


An algorithm to monitor the joints of patients with arthritis, which could change the way that the severity of the condition is assessed, has been developed by a team of engineers, physicians and radiologists.


Rising sea temperatures threaten survival of juvenile albatross



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:26 AM PDT


Changes in sea surface temperature affect the survival of albatross during their first year at sea, resulting in a reduced population growth rate when temperatures are warmer than the current average, a new study has revealed.


Virtual reality headsets significantly reduce children's fear of needles



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:26 AM PDT


Almost anyone can relate to being afraid of needles and injections. A pilot study is the first to use a 3D virtual reality headset to test this tool as a distraction method in a pediatric setting. Children were given the choice of a roller coaster ride, helicopter ride or a hot-air balloon ride. Results show that anticipated versus actual pain and fear were reduced in 94.1 percent of the pediatric study subjects.


Childhood sibling dynamics may predict differences in college education



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:26 AM PDT


The effects of sibling relationships may go beyond childhood bickering and bonding, according to researchers who found that these relationships may predict similarities and differences in siblings' education later in life.


Pesticide-free way to combat mosquitoes and West Nile



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:25 AM PDT


Researchers may have discovered a new, pesticide-free way to limit mosquito populations in some area and reduce the spread of the West Nile virus.


Explosive volcanoes spawned mysterious Martian rock formation



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:25 AM PDT


Explosive volcanic eruptions that shot jets of hot ash, rock and gas skyward are the likely source of a mysterious Martian rock formation, a new study finds. The new finding could add to scientists' understanding of Mars's interior and its past potential for habitability, according to the study's authors.


Silence is golden when it comes to how our brains work



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:25 AM PDT


It's the comparative silence between the firing spikes of neurons that tells what they are really up to, scientists report.


Scientists find potential disease-fighting 'warheads' hidden in bacteria



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:25 AM PDT


A new study suggests scientists could build better drugs by learning from bacteria-derived molecules called thiocarboxylic acids.


Great white sharks dive deep into warm-water whirlpools in the Atlantic



Posted: 18 Jun 2018 07:25 AM PDT


Tracking data from two great white sharks reveals that they spend more time deep inside warm-water eddies, suggesting that's where they like to feed.
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