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ScienceDaily: Latest Science News


Flexible content delivery, student-faculty interaction frees time without hurting grades
Say cheese! Why a toothy smile makes it easier for you to be identified
Exercise makes the blood of obese people healthier
Long-term estrogen therapy changes microbial activity in the gut
Absence epilepsy: When the brain is like 'an orchestra without a conductor'
Religious involvement deters recreational and medical marijuana use, researchers find
Machine learning may be a game-changer for climate prediction
Does good attendance equal good grades?
Floppy eyelids may be sign of sleep apnea
Political leaning influences city water policies as strongly as climate
When muscles weaken with age
Blue gene regulation helps plants respond properly to light
Age limit for federal food assistance program impacts reading scores, learning
Site of the next major earthquake on the San Andreas Fault?
The answer to triple-negative breast cancer?
Binge drinking during youth may impact future offspring
Risks of cancer and mortality by average lifetime alcohol intake
Genes associated with infantile forms of schizophrenia identified
Ocean's heat cycle shows that atmospheric carbon may be headed elsewhere
New material for splitting water
World's first known manta ray nursery
Everything big data claims to know about you could be wrong
Bees love blue fluorescent light, and not just any wavelength will do
Warnings to texting pedestrians may not eliminate risks, but they can help
Breast cancer could be prevented by targeting epigenetic proteins, study suggests
Human immune response in the fruit fly
Cells can trap viruses in protein cage to stop their spread, study reveals
RFK's assassination: A medical analysis of his injuries and neurosurgical care
Parents' explanations of peer interactions affect how children interpret peers' behavior
Good relationships with siblings may buffer the effects of family conflict
Children's immune system could hold the key to preventing sepsis
Combining different malaria vaccines could reduce cases by 91 percent
Palm oil: The carbon cost of deforestation
Ground-breaking discoveries could create superior alloys with many applications
Deep-sea marine sponges may hold key to antibiotic drug resistance
Twenty-five per cent of seafood sold in Metro Vancouver is mislabelled
Low vitamin D levels associated with scarring lung disease
Methadone and buprenorphine reduce risk of death after opioid overdose, study suggests
Gene mutations linked to pancreatic cancer
'Smart stent' detects narrowing of arteries
Why older people respond poorly to cancer treatment
Toothpaste and hand wash are causing antibiotic resistance
D for danger! Speech sounds convey emotions
The first experimental discovery of the propagation of plasma turbulence
Museum collection reveals distribution of Carolina parakeet 100 years after its extinction
Diabetes may be an early manifestation of pancreatic cancer
Sodium- and potassium-based batteries hold promise for cheap energy storage
Blood signature could improve early TB diagnosis
Good primary care lowers emergency department use for those with intellectual and developmental disabilities
Bad habits that lead to cancer, chronic disease corrected by simple lifestyle intervention
Mechanism controlling multiple sclerosis risk identified
Lion conservation research can be bolstered by input from a wide-range of professionals
Diagnostics of genetic cardiac diseases using stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes
Is the sky the limit? On the expansion threshold of a species' range
Mysterious event may be caused by a tau neutrino
World's first intra-operative MRI-guided robot for bilateral stereotactic neurosurgery
Hypnosis may help reduce fear of cancer treatment in children
Cell type and environment influence protein turnover in the brain
Tax havens and limited regulation increase risk for shareholders, study shows
Are you sticking to your diet? Scientists may be able to tell from a blood sample


Flexible content delivery, student-faculty interaction frees time without hurting grades



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 08:08 PM PDT


Medical students face an intense workload and often struggle to juggle priorities. Similarly, medical school faculty must find time in their schedules to prepare lectures and for face-to-face interaction with students. To optimize student and faculty time and increase engagement between them, researchers 'flipped' their content delivery strategy upside down.


Say cheese! Why a toothy smile makes it easier for you to be identified



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 08:08 PM PDT


A fulsome smile in a photo makes it easier for people to identify the individual, say researchers.


Exercise makes the blood of obese people healthier



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 08:08 PM PDT


Exercise can reduce inflammation in obese people by changing the characteristics of their blood, according to new research.


Long-term estrogen therapy changes microbial activity in the gut



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 02:35 PM PDT


Long-term therapy with estrogen and bazedoxifene alters the microbial composition and activity in the gut, affecting how estrogen is metabolized, a new study in mice found.


Absence epilepsy: When the brain is like 'an orchestra without a conductor'



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 02:35 PM PDT


New contributions to the field of epilepsy have opened a window into the cellular events that occur in the brain during absence seizures.


Religious involvement deters recreational and medical marijuana use, researchers find



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 02:35 PM PDT


Researchers have found that individuals who regularly attend church and report that religion is very important in their daily decision making are less likely to use marijuana recreationally and medically.


Machine learning may be a game-changer for climate prediction



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 02:35 PM PDT


New research demonstrates that machine-learning techniques can be used to accurately represent clouds and their atmospheric heating and moistening, and better represent clouds in coarse resolution climate models, with the potential to narrow the range of climate prediction. This could be a major advance in accurate predictions of global warming in response to increased greenhouse gas concentrations that are essential for policy-makers (e.g. the Paris climate agreement).


Does good attendance equal good grades?



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 02:35 PM PDT


Studies of classroom attendance patterns in undergraduate students have shown that attendance and performance go hand in hand -- attending class is the key to reaping the rewards of academic achievement. However, many of these studies were completed before the explosion of online learning.


Floppy eyelids may be sign of sleep apnea



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 02:29 PM PDT


A new study is providing further evidence that floppy eyelids may be a sign of sleep apnea. The study found that 53 percent of sleep apnea patients had upper eyelids that were lax and rubbery.


Political leaning influences city water policies as strongly as climate



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 02:29 PM PDT


Researchers examined city water policies over the course of four years to create a database of water conservation policies. They also developed an associated index of the number of different categories of policies each city adopted and gathered data on the climate, water sources, population, economy and political leanings of each city and its surrounding metropolitan statistical area -- as reflected in the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections.


When muscles weaken with age



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 01:42 PM PDT


Age-related changes in the peripheral nerves can drastically reduce the quality of life. Scientists have now identified what triggers such changes.


Blue gene regulation helps plants respond properly to light



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 01:42 PM PDT


Researchers have discovered a process through which gene expression in plants is regulated by light. The study found that blue light triggers a shift in which portion of a gene is ultimately expressed.


Age limit for federal food assistance program impacts reading scores, learning



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 01:41 PM PDT


Nearly 1 million children face food insecurity simply because they were born late in the year. No safety net coverage exists for these children when they age out of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and they are not yet eligible to attend kindergarten. A researcher has found that not only does the coverage gap impact overall food insecurity, it reduces reading scores at kindergarten entry.


Site of the next major earthquake on the San Andreas Fault?



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 01:41 PM PDT


Many researchers hypothesize that the southern tip of the 1300-km-long San Andreas fault zone (SAFZ) could be the nucleation site of the next major earthquake on the fault, yet geoscientists cannot evaluate this hazard until the location and geometry of the fault zone is documented.


The answer to triple-negative breast cancer?



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 11:13 AM PDT


Researchers have developed a computer program which has revealed a previously unknown combination of drugs that may be the answer to Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC), using genetic and treatment data from TNBC cells grown in labs and from hundreds of patients world-wide. Importantly researchers can tell, by inputting patients' genomic and proteomic information into their computer model, who may benefit from this drug combination or not -- saving precious time.


Binge drinking during youth may impact future offspring



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 11:13 AM PDT


A rat model found preconception binge drinking may have negative consequences on future offspring's growth, social interactions and pubertal development, according to a new study.


Risks of cancer and mortality by average lifetime alcohol intake



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 11:13 AM PDT


The risk of mortality, and of developing a number of cancers, is lowest in light drinkers consuming an average of less than one drink per day across their lifetime, and the risk of some cancers increases with each additional drink per week, according to a new study.


Genes associated with infantile forms of schizophrenia identified



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 10:28 AM PDT


Scientists have identified novel genes associated with a specific form of schizophrenia.


Ocean's heat cycle shows that atmospheric carbon may be headed elsewhere



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 10:28 AM PDT


A new study examined the global carbon cycle and suggests that scientists may have misgauged how carbon is distributed around the world, particularly between the northern and southern hemispheres. The results could change projections of how, when and where the currently massive levels of atmospheric carbon will result in environmental changes such as ocean acidification.


New material for splitting water



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:31 AM PDT


Solar energy is clean and abundant, but when the sun isn't shining, you must store the energy in batteries or through a process called photocatalysis. In photocatalytic water splitting, sunlight separates water into hydrogen and oxygen, which can then be recombined in a fuel cell to release energy. Now, a new class of materials -- halide double perovskites -- may have just the right properties to split water.


World's first known manta ray nursery



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:31 AM PDT


Located in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Texas at NOAA's Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, the juvenile manta ray habitat is the first of its kind to be described in a scientific study.


Everything big data claims to know about you could be wrong



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:31 AM PDT


When it comes to understanding what makes people tick -- and get sick -- medical science has long assumed that the bigger the sample of human subjects, the better. But new research suggests this big-data approach may be wildly off the mark.


Bees love blue fluorescent light, and not just any wavelength will do



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:31 AM PDT


Researchers have learned that a specific wavelength range of blue fluorescent light set bees abuzz.


Warnings to texting pedestrians may not eliminate risks, but they can help



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:31 AM PDT


Human factors researchers have been looking at ways to harness technology to prevent fatalities among pedestrians who are struck by vehicles while texting. In their latest study, researchers simulated a busy roadway to determine whether sending loud warning sounds to cell phones when texting pedestrians attempted to cross an unsafe gap would result in safer crossing behavior.


Breast cancer could be prevented by targeting epigenetic proteins, study suggests



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:31 AM PDT


Researchers have discovered that epigenetic proteins promote the proliferation of mammary gland stem cells in response to the sex hormone progesterone. The study suggests that inhibiting these proteins with drugs could prevent the development of breast cancer in women at high risk of the disease.


Human immune response in the fruit fly



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:31 AM PDT


Researchers have seen how both humans and fruit flies deploy a protein that a plays a critical role in their immune responses to invading bacteria. The discovery gives scientists evolutionary insight and a model organism with which to explore ways to boost the human immune system and create infection-fighting medicines.


Cells can trap viruses in protein cage to stop their spread, study reveals



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:30 AM PDT


Researchers have discovered that cells can trap viruses in a protein cage to stop them from spreading to neighboring cells. The study reveals that the vaccinia virus can escape this trap by recruiting additional proteins to dismantle the cage and propel the virus out of the cell.


RFK's assassination: A medical analysis of his injuries and neurosurgical care



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:30 AM PDT


Although much has been written about Robert F. Kennedy's assassination, to date there has been no detailed medical discussion of Kennedy's injuries and treatment. A new article addresses this subject.


Parents' explanations of peer interactions affect how children interpret peers' behavior



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:30 AM PDT


New research shows that parents can help their children perceive less hostility in their social world by framing social situations in a positive way, and thus, reduce their likelihood of behaving aggressively.


Good relationships with siblings may buffer the effects of family conflict



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:30 AM PDT


A new longitudinal study finds that having a good relationship with a sibling may help buffer the distress of ongoing hostility between parents.


Children's immune system could hold the key to preventing sepsis



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:30 AM PDT


Scientists have identified the key response that children use to control infections.


Combining different malaria vaccines could reduce cases by 91 percent



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:30 AM PDT


Using two experimental anti-malarial vaccines, which work in different ways, can greatly reduce the number of malaria infections in animal studies.


Palm oil: The carbon cost of deforestation



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:30 AM PDT


Palm oil has become part of our daily lives, but a recent study serves as a reminder that intensive farming of this crop has a major impact on the environment. Both short- and long-term solutions exist, however. The article analyzed the carbon costs and benefits of converting rainforests into oil palm plantations.


Ground-breaking discoveries could create superior alloys with many applications



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:30 AM PDT


Many current and future technologies require alloys that can withstand high temperatures without corroding. Now, researchers have hailed a major breakthrough in understanding how alloys behave at high temperatures, pointing the way to significant improvements in many technologies.


Deep-sea marine sponges may hold key to antibiotic drug resistance



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:30 AM PDT


FAU's Harbor Branch houses more than 1,000 strains of actinobacteria, one of the most prolific microbial groups for the production of natural products. Derived from sea sponges and other macro-organisms, several strains were identified for their potent antifungal activity, for anti-MRSA activity, and for both antifungal and antibacterial activities. A key finding was the identification of a strain that produced metabolites that are more potent than the bacterial antibiotic, vancomycin, against C. difficile.


Twenty-five per cent of seafood sold in Metro Vancouver is mislabelled



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:30 AM PDT


A new study used DNA barcoding to determine that 70 of 281 seafood samples collected in Metro Vancouver between September 2017 and February 2018 were mislabelled.


Low vitamin D levels associated with scarring lung disease



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:30 AM PDT


Reviewing medical information gathered on more than 6,000 adults over a 10-year period, researchers have found that lower than normal blood levels of vitamin D were linked to increased risk of early signs of interstitial lung disease (ILD).


Methadone and buprenorphine reduce risk of death after opioid overdose, study suggests



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:30 AM PDT


A new study found that treatment of opioid use disorder with either methadone or buprenorphine following a nonfatal opioid overdose is associated with significant reductions in opioid related mortality.


Gene mutations linked to pancreatic cancer



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:30 AM PDT


Six genes contain mutations that may be passed down in families, substantially increasing a person's risk for pancreatic cancer. However, because researchers found these genetic mutations in patients with no family history of pancreatic cancer, they are recommending genetic testing for all pancreatic cancer patients as the new standard of care.


'Smart stent' detects narrowing of arteries



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:30 AM PDT


Researchers have developed a type of 'smart stent' that monitors even subtle changes in the flow of blood through the artery, detecting the narrowing in its earliest stages and making early diagnosis and treatment possible.


Why older people respond poorly to cancer treatment



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:29 AM PDT


Researchers may have found a group of immune cells that increase in number with age but are too worn out to fight diseases. The accumulation of dysfunctional virtual memory T cells, in addition to the loss of true naïve T cells, may explain why older people have reduced immune responses to cancer and vaccines, why cancer immunotherapy is less successful in the elderly, and may help to tailor cancer immunotherapy treatments specifically for older patients.


Toothpaste and hand wash are causing antibiotic resistance



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:29 AM PDT


A common ingredient in toothpaste and hand wash could be contributing to antibiotic resistance, according to new research. The study focused on triclosan, a compound used in more than 2000 personal care products.


D for danger! Speech sounds convey emotions



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:29 AM PDT


Individual speech sounds -- phonemes -- are statistically associated with negative or positive emotions in several languages, new research shows. These associations help us quickly avoid dangers, because the phoneme-emotion associations are strongest at the beginning of the word and the phonemes that are spoken fastest tend to have a negative association


The first experimental discovery of the propagation of plasma turbulence



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:29 AM PDT


Scientists applied the 'heat pulse modulation method' in the magnetic island produced intentionally in the tokamak 'Doublet III-D.' Temperature gradient inherent in the magnetically confined plasma causes turbulence while there is no turbulence in the magnetic island because of the absence of the gradient. That the turbulence propagates has now been demonstrated for the first time by investigating turbulence in the magnetic island.


Museum collection reveals distribution of Carolina parakeet 100 years after its extinction



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:29 AM PDT


While 2018 marks the centenary of the death of the last captive Carolina parakeet -- North America's only native parrot, a team of researchers have shed new light on the previously known geographical range of the species.


Diabetes may be an early manifestation of pancreatic cancer



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:29 AM PDT


A new study indicates that recent-onset type 2 diabetes may be early expression of pancreatic cancer. Diabetes was associated with a more than twofold higher risk of pancreatic cancer in African-Americans and Latinos, but recent-onset diabetes was associated with a 2.3-fold greater increase in risk of pancreatic cancer than long-standing diabetes.


Sodium- and potassium-based batteries hold promise for cheap energy storage



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:27 AM PDT


Researchers have found new evidence suggesting that batteries based on sodium and potassium hold promise as a potential alternative to lithium-based batteries.


Blood signature could improve early TB diagnosis



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:27 AM PDT


A gene signature in the bloodstream can reveal whether someone is going to develop active tuberculosis (TB) disease months before symptoms begin. This offers the prospect of intervening before individuals pose a risk of transmitting the infection to others.


Good primary care lowers emergency department use for those with intellectual and developmental disabilities



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:27 AM PDT


One in three adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities visit the emergency department annually but effective primary care could reduce these numbers, suggests a new study.


Bad habits that lead to cancer, chronic disease corrected by simple lifestyle intervention



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:27 AM PDT


Four of the most common bad habits -- too much screen time, too little exercise and high fat and low fruit and vegetable intake -- can lead to heart disease and cancer, but a simple intervention using mobile health tools and coaching normalized these behaviors, and improvements were sustained.


Mechanism controlling multiple sclerosis risk identified



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:25 AM PDT


While the DNA sequence remains the same throughout a person's life, the expression of the encoded genes may change with time and contribute to disease development in genetically predisposed individuals. Researchers have now discovered a new mechanism of a major risk gene for multiple sclerosis (MS) that triggers disease through epigenetic regulation. They also found a protective genetic variant that reduces the risk for MS.


Lion conservation research can be bolstered by input from a wide-range of professionals



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:25 AM PDT


To tackle the sharp decline in lion numbers, conservation research should consider wild prey, livestock and the environment, not just human-lion interaction, a new review suggests.


Diagnostics of genetic cardiac diseases using stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:25 AM PDT


A new study demonstrates that with the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning, it is possible not only to accurately sort sick cardiac cell cultures from healthy ones, but also to differentiate between genetic cardiac diseases.


Is the sky the limit? On the expansion threshold of a species' range



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:25 AM PDT


What stops a species adapting to an ever-wider range of conditions, continuously expanding its geographic range? A biomathematician now explains the formation of species' range margins. The theory shows that just two compound parameters, important for both ecology and evolution of species, are fundamental to the stability of their range: the environmental heterogeneity and the size of the local population.


Mysterious event may be caused by a tau neutrino



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:25 AM PDT


Theoretical physicists calculate the origin of a high-energy particle track captured by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory.


World's first intra-operative MRI-guided robot for bilateral stereotactic neurosurgery



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:25 AM PDT


Scientists have recently designed the first neurosurgical robotic system capable of performing bilateral stereotactic neurosurgery inside a magnetic resonance imaging ('MRI') scanner.


Hypnosis may help reduce fear of cancer treatment in children



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:25 AM PDT


Hypnosis could help to reduce the fear of medical procedures in children and young people with cancer.


Cell type and environment influence protein turnover in the brain



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:25 AM PDT


Scientists have revealed that protein molecules in the brain are broken down and replaced at different rates, depending on where in the brain they are.


Tax havens and limited regulation increase risk for shareholders, study shows



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:25 AM PDT


Some large, publicly held companies are incorporated in tax haven countries, ostensibly to increase value for shareholders. But new research finds that many such companies -- particularly those headquartered in countries with limited shareholder protections -- are more likely to engage in practices that benefit executives at the cost of their shareholders.


Are you sticking to your diet? Scientists may be able to tell from a blood sample



Posted: 19 Jun 2018 09:25 AM PDT


An analysis of small molecules called 'metabolites' in a blood sample may be used to determine whether a person is following a prescribed diet, scientists show in a new study.
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