ScienceDaily: Latest Science News

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ScienceDaily: Latest Science News


Balanced reporting of sports head injuries
How breast tissue stiffening promotes breast cancer development
Researchers develop fire-retardant coating featuring renewable materials
Fractures, head injuries common in e-scooter collisions
Drinking and drug-use dreams in recovery tied to more severe addiction history
Natural selection and spatial memory link shown in mountain chickadee research
Uncovering the evolution of the brain
Indonesia's devastating 2018 earthquake was a rare supershear, UCLA study finds
Role of estrogen in controlling Type 2 diabetes
Testosterone limits for female athletes based on 'flawed' research
Large study fails to link phthalates and increased breast cancer risk
Slower runners benefit most from elite methods
Moving artificial leaves out of the lab and into the air
Laser-induced graphene gets tough, with help
Women scarce in the one percent
Insulating crust kept cryomagma liquid for millions of years on nearby dwarf planet
Why too much DNA repair can injure tissue
New frog species found on remote Ethiopian mountain
With age comes hearing loss and a greater risk of cognitive decline
Gallbladder removal operation during pregnancy associated with adverse maternal outcomes
Teaching self-driving cars to predict pedestrian movement
Possibility of recent underground volcanism on Mars
Diets consisting of fewer calories improve cell performance
High cadence cycling offers no benefit to amateurs, finds new study
Scientists gain new insight on triggers for preterm birth
Streetcars don't guarantee heightened development activity
Laser physics: Transformation through light
Nano drops a million times smaller than a teardrop explodes 19th century theory
Infection biology: What makes Helicobacter so adaptable?
More efficient system to reprogram stem cells
Climate of North American cities will shift hundreds of miles in one generation
Once seen as nerve cells' foot soldier, the axon emerges as decision-maker
Scientists provide new insight on gene mutations associated with autism
Accelerated risk of mobility loss for people aged 60+ tied to excess weight/inactivity
New AI toolkit is the 'scientist that never sleeps'
Walking simulation games signal a new literary genre
Improving geothermal HVAC systems with mathematics
Why bribery works and what changes its effectiveness
Cancer comparison across species highlights new drug targets
How Viagra puts a brake on a master growth regulator to treat heart disease
Mom's reward: Female Galápagos seabird has a shorter lifespan than males
New tarantula species from Angola distinct with a one-of-a-kind 'horn' on its back
Consciousness rests on the brain's ability to sustain rich dynamics of neural activity
Young children who express suicidal ideation understand death better than their peers
Phase transition dynamics in two-dimensional materials
Questions in quantum computing: How to move electrons with light
How sleep can fight infection
Face transplant surgery can improve speech in victims of severe face trauma
Investing in antibiotics critical to saving lives during pandemic influenza outbreaks
A new mouse model may unlock the secrets of type I diabetes
Selfies to self-diagnosis: Algorithm 'amps up' smartphones to diagnose disease
Another early-onset Alzheimer's gene mutation found, and traced back to Africa
Ice volume calculated anew
Simple and low-cost crack-healing of ceramic-based composites
Obstructive sleep apnea linked to inflammation, organ dysfunction
Gory, freaky, cool: Marine snail venom could improve insulin for diabetic patients
Earth's magnetic shield booms like a drum when hit by impulses
The physical forces of cells in action
What can early adulthood tell us about midlife identity?
Research will help urban planners prioritize bike lanes


Balanced reporting of sports head injuries



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 04:09 PM PST


A group of more than 60 leading international neuroscientists are asking for balance when reporting on sports-related injury chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).


How breast tissue stiffening promotes breast cancer development



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 04:09 PM PST


By examining how mammary cells respond in a stiffness-changing hydrogel, researchers discovered that several pathways work together to signal breast cells to turn cancerous. The work could inspire new approaches to treating patients and inhibiting tumor growth.


Researchers develop fire-retardant coating featuring renewable materials



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 04:08 PM PST


Researchers are developing a new kind of flame-retardant coating using renewable, nontoxic materials readily found in nature, which could provide even more effective fire protection for several widely used materials.


Fractures, head injuries common in e-scooter collisions



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 04:08 PM PST


UCLA researchers have found that people involved in electric scooter accidents are sometimes injured badly enough -- from fractures, dislocated joints and head injuries -- to require treatment in an emergency department.


Drinking and drug-use dreams in recovery tied to more severe addiction history



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 04:08 PM PST


Vivid dreams involving drinking and drug use are common among individuals in recovery. A study finds these relapse dreams are more common in those with more severe clinical histories of alcohol and other drug problems.


Natural selection and spatial memory link shown in mountain chickadee research



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 04:08 PM PST


Chickadees with better learning and memory skills, needed to find numerous food caches, are more likely to survive their first winter, a long-term study of mountain chickadees has found.


Uncovering the evolution of the brain



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 04:08 PM PST


What makes us human, and where does this mysterious property of 'humanness' come from? Humans are genetically similar to chimpanzees and bonobos, yet there exist obvious behavioral and cognitive differences. Now, researchers have developed a strategy to more easily study the early development of human neurons compared with the neurons of nonhuman primates.


Indonesia's devastating 2018 earthquake was a rare supershear, UCLA study finds



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 01:22 PM PST


The devastating 7.5 magnitude earthquake that struck the Indonesian island of Sulawesi last September was a rare 'supershear' earthquake, according to a study led by UCLA researchers. Only a dozen supershear quakes have been identified in the past two decades.


Role of estrogen in controlling Type 2 diabetes



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 01:22 PM PST


The results of a recent study provide insights into the mechanism by which estrogen can decrease insulin resistance and the production of glucose, reducing incidences of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Testosterone limits for female athletes based on 'flawed' research



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 01:00 PM PST


New rules governing international track and field competitions would require some women to medically reduce their testosterone levels to compete. A new study suggests the regulations are rooted in flawed science.


Large study fails to link phthalates and increased breast cancer risk



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 01:00 PM PST


In the largest study to date on phthalates and postmenopausal breast cancer, a cancer epidemiology researcher found no association between breast cancer risk and exposure to the plasticizing and solvent chemicals used in such common products as shampoo, makeup, vinyl flooring, toys, medical devices and car interiors.


Slower runners benefit most from elite methods



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 01:00 PM PST


How much do high-tech shoes, special diets and exercises, drafting behind other runners and other strategies to improve your 'running economy' actually improve your finish time? A new study spells it out. The takeaway: The faster you are, the harder it is to get faster.


Moving artificial leaves out of the lab and into the air



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 01:00 PM PST


Researchers have proposed a design solution that could bring artificial leaves out of the lab and into the environment. Their improved leaf, which would use carbon dioxide -- a potent greenhouse gas -- from the air, would be at least 10 times more efficient than natural leaves at converting carbon dioxide to fuel.


Laser-induced graphene gets tough, with help



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 01:00 PM PST


Laser-induced graphene combines with many materials to make tough, conductive composites for wearable electronics, anti-icing, antimicrobial applications, sensors and water treatment.


Women scarce in the one percent



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 01:00 PM PST


Looking at income inequality reveals vast gender inequality as well, according to a new study. While the families earning in the top one percent of American household incomes receive nearly one-fourth of all U.S. income, the bulk of earning is done by men. Women's income alone is sufficient for one percent status in only five percent of elite households. Moreover, women's income contributes to achieving one percent ranking in only 15 percent of households.


Insulating crust kept cryomagma liquid for millions of years on nearby dwarf planet



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 11:41 AM PST


A recent NASA mission to the dwarf planet Ceres found brilliant, white spots of salts on its surface. New research delved into the factors that influenced the volcanic activity that formed the distinctive spots and that could play a key role in mixing the ingredients for life on other worlds.


Why too much DNA repair can injure tissue



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 11:14 AM PST


Researchers have discovered how overactive DNA repair systems can lead to retinal damage and blindness in mice. A DNA repair enzyme called Aag glycosylase becomes hyperactive, provoking an inflammatory response that produces necrosis, leading to severe tissue damage.


New frog species found on remote Ethiopian mountain



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 11:14 AM PST


A new species of puddle frog (order: Anura, family: Phynobatrachidae, genus: Phrynobatrachus), has just been discovered at the unexplored and isolated Bibita Mountain in southwestern Ethiopia. The research team named the new species Phrynobatrachus bibita sp. nov., or Bibita Mountain dwarf puddle frog, inspired by its home.


With age comes hearing loss and a greater risk of cognitive decline



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 10:48 AM PST


In a new study, researchers report that hearing impairment is associated with accelerated cognitive decline with age, though the impact of mild hearing loss may be lessened by higher education.


Gallbladder removal operation during pregnancy associated with adverse maternal outcomes



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 10:47 AM PST


When faced with painful gallstones, pregnant women should consider postponing surgical treatment until after childbirth, new study results show.


Teaching self-driving cars to predict pedestrian movement



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 10:47 AM PST


By zeroing in on humans' gait, body symmetry and foot placement, researchers are teaching self-driving cars to recognize and predict pedestrian movements with greater precision than current technologies.


Possibility of recent underground volcanism on Mars



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 10:47 AM PST


New research suggests liquid water is present beneath the south polar ice cap of Mars. Now, a new study argues there needs to be an underground source of heat for liquid water to exist underneath the polar ice cap.


Diets consisting of fewer calories improve cell performance



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 09:01 AM PST


Animal experiments have shown that caloric restriction causes cellular changes that can prevent diseases.


High cadence cycling offers no benefit to amateurs, finds new study



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 09:01 AM PST


A new study has found that exercise efficiency decreases in recreational cyclists when they pedal very hard, incorporating more revolutions per minute.


Scientists gain new insight on triggers for preterm birth



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 09:01 AM PST


A group of scientists have gained new insight on a poorly-understood key player in the timing of labor and delivery. This new information brings scientists closer to being able to prevent preterm births.


Streetcars don't guarantee heightened development activity



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 09:01 AM PST


Development outcomes along streetcar corridors can't be entirely attributed to the presence of the streetcar, researchers found. Streetcar investment is commonly accompanied with a healthy incentive package, for example.


Laser physics: Transformation through light



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 09:01 AM PST


Laser physicists have taken snapshots of how C60 carbon molecules react to extremely short pulses of intense infrared light.


Nano drops a million times smaller than a teardrop explodes 19th century theory



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 09:00 AM PST


Droplets emanating from a molecular 'nano-tap' would behave very differently from those from a household tap 1 million times larger -- researchers have found. This is potentially crucial step for a number of emerging nano technologies, e.g., manufacture of nano-sized drug particles, lab-on-chip devices for in situ diagnostics, and 3D printers capable of nanoscale resolution.


Infection biology: What makes Helicobacter so adaptable?



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 09:00 AM PST


The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori owes its worldwide distribution to its genetic adaptability. Microbiologists have identified an enzyme that plays a vital role in the flexible control of global gene expression in the species.


More efficient system to reprogram stem cells



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 09:00 AM PST


Induced pluripotent stem cells, the workhorse of many regenerative medicine projects, start out as differentiated cells that are reprogrammed to pluripotent stem cells by exposure to a complex set of genetic cocktails.


Climate of North American cities will shift hundreds of miles in one generation



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 09:00 AM PST


In one generation, the climate experienced in many North American cities is projected to change to that of locations hundreds of miles away -- or to a new climate unlike any found in North America today. A new study and interactive web application aim to help the public understand how climate change will impact the lives of people who live in urban areas of the United States and Canada.


Once seen as nerve cells' foot soldier, the axon emerges as decision-maker



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:48 AM PST


New research reveals that parts of the neuron are far more complex than once thought.


Scientists provide new insight on gene mutations associated with autism



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


A novel investigation into the impacts of neuronal mutations on autism-related characteristics in humans has been described.


Accelerated risk of mobility loss for people aged 60+ tied to excess weight/inactivity



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


The combination of excess weight/obesity and an inactive lifestyle represents a powerful joint risk factor for developing mobility loss after age 60, according to a new study.


New AI toolkit is the 'scientist that never sleeps'



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


Researchers have developed a new AI-driven platform that can analyze how pathogens infect our cells with the precision of a trained biologist.


Walking simulation games signal a new literary genre



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


Walking simulation games signal a new literary genre Research has revealed that walking simulations are blurring the boundaries of different art forms to create a new literary genre. Walking simulations -- video games where there are no winners and no one is shot at or killed -- have become increasingly popular in the last few years.


Improving geothermal HVAC systems with mathematics



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


Sustainable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, such as those that harness low-enthalpy geothermal energy, are needed to reduce collective energy use and mitigate the continued effects of a warming climate. Researchers use asymptotic expansion techniques to study the harmonic thermal response of vertical geothermal boreholes in such systems to sub-annual harmonic excitations.


Why bribery works and what changes its effectiveness



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


A new study suggests that greed, and not the willingness to return the favor, is the main reason people give in to bribery. But the research also finds there are times when the almighty buck can be ignored and effects of a bribe can be lessened.


Cancer comparison across species highlights new drug targets



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


Cancer genes in mucosal melanoma, a rare and poorly understood subtype of melanoma, have been compared in humans, dogs and horses for the first time. Researchers sequenced the genomes of the same cancer across different species to pinpoint key cancer genes. The results give insights into how cancer evolves across the tree of life and could guide the development of new therapies.


How Viagra puts a brake on a master growth regulator to treat heart disease



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


When normal cells grow, divide or do any job in the body, they do so in response to a whole slew of internal sensors that measure nutrients and energy supply, and environmental cues that inform what happens outside the cell.


Mom's reward: Female Galápagos seabird has a shorter lifespan than males



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


The male Nazca booby, a large seabird of the Galápagos Islands, often outlives the domineering female of the species, according to new research. Why? It's a story of rotating sex partners, the cost of being a parent and how the body falls apart in old age.


New tarantula species from Angola distinct with a one-of-a-kind 'horn' on its back



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:46 AM PST


A new to science species of tarantula with a peculiar horn-like protuberance sticking out of its back was recently identified in central Angola, a largely underexplored country located at the intersection of several Afrotropical ecoregions.


Consciousness rests on the brain's ability to sustain rich dynamics of neural activity



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:42 AM PST


Consciousness, from the moment we go to sleep until we wake up, seems to come and go every day. Consciousness can be temporarily abolished by pharmacological agents or more permanently by brain injury. Each of these departures from conscious wakefulness brings about different changes in brain function, behavior and in the brain's neurochemistry. However, they all share a common feature: the lack of reported subjective experience.


Young children who express suicidal ideation understand death better than their peers



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:49 AM PST


Four- to six-year-old children who express suicidal thoughts and behaviors have a better understanding of what it means to die than the majority of their peers, reports a new study.


Phase transition dynamics in two-dimensional materials



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:48 AM PST


Scientists have discovered the mechanism involved when transition metal dichalcogenides on metallic substrates transform from the semiconducting 1H-phase to the quasi-metallic 1T'-phase.


Questions in quantum computing: How to move electrons with light



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:48 AM PST


To design future quantum technologies, scientists pinpoint how microwaves interact with matter.


How sleep can fight infection



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:48 AM PST


Researchers have discovered why sleep can sometimes be the best medicine. Sleep improves the potential ability of some of the body's immune cells to attach to their targets, according to a new study. The study helps explain how sleep can fight off an infection, whereas other conditions, such as chronic stress, can make the body more susceptible to illness.


Face transplant surgery can improve speech in victims of severe face trauma



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:48 AM PST


A new case study finds that face transplant surgery in patients who have experienced severe facial trauma can improve speech production.


Investing in antibiotics critical to saving lives during pandemic influenza outbreaks



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:48 AM PST


Researchers have developed a mathematical framework to estimate the value of investing in developing and conserving an antibiotic to mitigate the burden of bacterial infections caused by resistant Staphylococcus aureus during a pandemic influenza outbreak.


A new mouse model may unlock the secrets of type I diabetes



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:26 AM PST


Finding new treatments or a cure for type I diabetes has been elusive in part because scientists have not had a reliable animal model that mimics the full scope of human type I diabetes. A research team has now developed a humanized mouse model that spontaneously develops Type I diabetes and the full range of complications experienced by diabetes patients. That allows study of the disease and its natural progression in a way not previously possible.


Selfies to self-diagnosis: Algorithm 'amps up' smartphones to diagnose disease



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:26 AM PST


Smartphones aren't just for selfies anymore. A novel cell phone imaging algorithm can now analyze assays typically evaluated via spectroscopy, a powerful device used in scientific research. Researchers analyzed more than 10,000 images and found that their method consistently outperformed existing algorithms under a wide range of operating field conditions. This technique reduces the need for bulky equipment and increases the precision of quantitative results.


Another early-onset Alzheimer's gene mutation found, and traced back to Africa



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:26 AM PST


For some of us, they carry the bright blue of our grandfather's eyes. For others they result in the characteristic cleft chin or the familial tendency toward color blindness. But in some families, the genetic mutations handed down from generation to generation aren't as benign. And for one family in particular, the mutation results in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.


Ice volume calculated anew



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:26 AM PST


Researchers have provided a new estimate for the glacier ice volume all around the world, excluding the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Their conclusion: previous calculations overestimated the volume of the glaciers in High Mountain Asia.


Simple and low-cost crack-healing of ceramic-based composites



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:26 AM PST


A team of researchers has demonstrated that cracks induced in composites consisting of alumina ceramics and titanium could be healed at room temperature, a world-first. This ceramic healing method permits crack-healing even in a state in which a device is mounted on a ceramic package at a low cost and without using complicated heat treatment processes that require significant amounts of energy.


Obstructive sleep apnea linked to inflammation, organ dysfunction



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:25 AM PST


Voyagers no longer embark in search of the storied Fountain of Youth, but the quest for longevity is still very much alive for researchers. Chronological age -- the passing of time one spends on this planet -- cannot be reversed, of course. However, biological age -- one's health relative to that of one's peers -- can be turned back. Healthy lifestyle habits contribute to "aging well," meaning one's biological age is younger than one's chronological age, researchers said. And sleep is a major factor in how well one ages.


Gory, freaky, cool: Marine snail venom could improve insulin for diabetic patients



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 05:15 AM PST


Researchers detailed the function of cone snail insulins, bringing them one step closer to developing a faster-acting insulin to treat diabetes.


Earth's magnetic shield booms like a drum when hit by impulses



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 05:15 AM PST


The Earth's magnetic shield booms like a drum when it is hit by strong impulses, according to new research.


The physical forces of cells in action



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 05:15 AM PST


The detection of physical forces is one of the most complex challenges facing science. Considered to play a decisive role in many biological processes, the chemical tools to visualize the physical forces in action do not exist. But today, researchers have developed probes inspired by lobster cooking, they enable to enter into cells. For the first time, physical forces can be imaged live inside the cells.


What can early adulthood tell us about midlife identity?



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 05:15 AM PST


A recent study indicates that personality style in young adulthood anticipates identity formation later in life.


Research will help urban planners prioritize bike lanes



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 05:15 AM PST


A new virtual tool could help planners choose the best places to install bikes lanes in cities. The data-based tool builds on previous research that validated the safety benefits of bike lanes for cyclists and motorists.
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