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ScienceDaily: Latest Science News


Materials informatics reveals new class of super-hard alloys
Many choices seems promising until you actually have to choose
Salmonella resistant to antibiotics of last resort found in US
Gut microbes eat our medication
Researchers learned how to better combat muscle loss during space flights
The surprising reason why some lemurs may be more sensitive to forest loss
Carbon-neutral fuels move a step closer
Mysterious Majorana quasiparticle is now closer to being controlled for quantum computing
Half of Ebola outbreaks undetected
People using third-party apps to analyze personal genetic data
'Locking' an arthritis drug may be key to improving it
Hidden brain signals behind working memory
Fetal genome involved in triggering premature birth
New model more accurately predicts choices in classic decision-making task
Environmental oxygen triggers loss of webbed digits
Taking the 'killer' out of natural killer cells
Mutant bacterial receptor could point to new therapies against opportunistic pathogen
Deadly tick-borne virus cured with experimental flu drug, in mice
Migratory hoverflies 'key' as many insects decline
Enhanced human Blood-Brain Barrier Chip performs in vivo-like drug and antibody transport
Are we using biologic therapy properly?
Viruses found to use intricate 'treadmill' to move cargo across bacterial cells
Breaking the code: How is a mother's immunity transferred to her baby?
Pre-pregnancy weight affects infant growth response to breast milk
Early-season hurricanes result in greater transmission of mosquito-borne infectious disease
Downward head tilt can make people seem more dominant
Once thought to be asexual, single-celled parasites caught in the act
Monitoring educational equity
Squid could thrive under climate change
New imaging modality targets cholesterol in arterial plaque
Genetic inequity towards endocrine disruptors
Sensing food textures is a matter of pressure
Earth's heavy metals result of supernova explosion, research reveals
NASA's Fermi mission reveals its highest-energy gamma-ray bursts
Concert of magnetic moments
Married US moms aim to have first baby in the spring
Lowering cholesterol is not enough to reduce hyperactivity of the immune system
Genes for Good project harnesses Facebook to reach larger, more diverse groups of people
Research shows temperature, glyphosate increase probability for dicamba volatility
Liquid gold on the nanoscale
Research identifies key driver for infanticide among chimpanzees
The whisper of schizophrenia: Machine learning finds 'sound' words predict psychosis
Bitcoin causing carbon dioxide emissions comparable to Las Vegas or Hamburg
Rheumatoid arthritic pain could be caused by antibodies
Carbon-neutral fuel made from sunlight and air
Interactions between plant and insect-infecting viruses
New quantum dot microscope shows electric potentials of individual atoms
Increase in resolution, scale takes CT scanning and diagnosis to the next level
People with mobility issues set to benefit from wearable devices
Growing life expectancy inequality in US cannot be blamed on opioids alone
'Virtual biopsy' device to detect skin tumors
Zebras' stripes could be used to control their temperature, study reveals
Low vitamin K levels linked to mobility limitation and disability in older adults
New research decodes plant defense system, with an eye on improving farming and medicine
New economic study shows combination of SNAP and WIC improves food security
Making the 'human-body Internet' more effective
Braces won't always bring happiness
Two hours a week is key dose of nature for health and wellbeing
Even in young children: Higher weight = higher blood pressure
Lower risk of Type 1 diabetes seen in children vaccinated against 'stomach flu' virus


Materials informatics reveals new class of super-hard alloys



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 12:37 PM PDT


A new method of discovering materials using data analytics and electron microscopy has found a new class of extremely hard alloys. Such materials could potentially withstand severe impact from projectiles, providing better protection for soldiers in combat.


Many choices seems promising until you actually have to choose



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 12:37 PM PDT


People faced with more options than they can effectively consider want to make a good decision, but feel they're unable to do so, according to the results of a novel study. Despite the apparent opportunities presented by a lot of options, the need to choose creates a 'paralyzing paradox,' according to the authors. 'You want to make a good choice, but feel like you can't.'


Salmonella resistant to antibiotics of last resort found in US



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:43 AM PDT


Researchers have found a gene that gives Salmonella resistance to antibiotics of last resort in a sample taken from a human patient in the US The find is the first evidence that the gene mcr-3.1 has made its way into the US from Asia.


Gut microbes eat our medication



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:36 AM PDT


Researchers have discovered one of the first concrete examples of how the microbiome can interfere with a drug's intended path through the body. Focusing on levodopa (L-dopa), the primary treatment for Parkinson's disease, they identified which bacteria out of the trillions of species is responsible for degrading the drug and how to stop this microbial interference.


Researchers learned how to better combat muscle loss during space flights



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:36 AM PDT


A new study has further documented how muscles are affected by reduced gravity conditions during space flight missions and uncovered how exercise and hormone treatments can be tailored to minimize muscle loss for individual space travelers.


The surprising reason why some lemurs may be more sensitive to forest loss



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


Researchers compared the gut microbes of 12 lemur species across the island of Madagascar, where thousands of acres of forest are cleared each year. The team found that some lemurs harbor microbes that are more specialized than others for the forests where they live.


Carbon-neutral fuels move a step closer



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


Chemists have developed an efficient process for converting carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide, a key ingredient of synthetic fuels and materials.


Mysterious Majorana quasiparticle is now closer to being controlled for quantum computing



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


Using a new approach, researchers detected the elusive Majorana quasiparticle, notable for being its own antiparticle and for its potential as the basis for a robust quantum computing system, in a device built from a superconductor, small magnetic elements, and a topological insulator.


Half of Ebola outbreaks undetected



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


An estimated half of Ebola virus disease outbreaks have gone undetected since it was discovered in 1976, according to new research. Although these tend to affect fewer than five patients, the study highlights the need for improved detection and rapid response, in order that outbreaks of Ebola and other public health threats are detected early and consistently.


People using third-party apps to analyze personal genetic data



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


A new study finds that people who are initially motivated to learn about their ancestry with third-party personal genetics services frequently end up engaging with health interpretations of their genetic data, too.


'Locking' an arthritis drug may be key to improving it



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


Attaching a removable lock to an arthritis drug can make it safer and more effective, according to a new study. The findings suggest a new way to improve the efficacy of a drug taken by millions of patients throughout the world.


Hidden brain signals behind working memory



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


Making a specific type of brain pattern last longer improves short-term memory in rats, a new study finds.


Fetal genome involved in triggering premature birth



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


Mutations in the gene that codes for SLIT2, a protein expressed in fetal cells in placentas and involved in directing the growth of the fetal nervous system, may contribute to premature births, possibly by activating the mother's immune system.


New model more accurately predicts choices in classic decision-making task



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


A new mathematical model that predicts which choices people will make in the Iowa Gambling Task, a task used for the past 25 years to study decision-making, outperforms previously developed models.


Environmental oxygen triggers loss of webbed digits



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


Free fingers have many obvious advantages on land, such as in locomotion and grasping, while webbed fingers are typical of aquatic or gliding animals. But both amphibians and amniotes -- which include mammals, reptiles, and birds -- can have webbed digits. Scientists now show that during embryo development, some animal species detect the presence of atmospheric oxygen, which triggers removal of interdigital webbing.


Taking the 'killer' out of natural killer cells



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


The virus responsible for chickenpox and shingles employs a powerful strategy of immune evasion, inhibiting the ability of natural killer cells to destroy infected cells and produce molecules that help control viral infection, according to a a new study.


Mutant bacterial receptor could point to new therapies against opportunistic pathogen



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


Researchers have developed a new mutant version of a receptor used by a bacterial pathogen for a chemical communication process called quorum sensing, according to a new study.


Deadly tick-borne virus cured with experimental flu drug, in mice



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


An investigational flu drug cures mice infected with the rare but deadly Bourbon virus, according to a new study.


Migratory hoverflies 'key' as many insects decline



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


Migratory hoverflies are 'key' to pollination and controlling crop pests amid the decline of many other insect species, new research shows.


Enhanced human Blood-Brain Barrier Chip performs in vivo-like drug and antibody transport



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


A team has leveraged its microfluidic Organs-on-Chips technology in combination with a developmentally-inspired hypoxia-mimicking approach to differentiate human pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs). The resulting 'hypoxia-enhanced BBB Chip' recapitulates cellular organization, tight barrier functions and transport abilities of the human BBB; and it allows the transport of drugs and therapeutic antibodies in a way that more closely mimics transport across the BBB in vivo than existing in vitro systems.


Are we using biologic therapy properly?



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


The introduction of infliximab (Remicade), the first biologic therapy approved for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), did not result in lower rates of hospitalizations or intestinal surgeries among patients living with IBD in Ontario, according to a new study.


Viruses found to use intricate 'treadmill' to move cargo across bacterial cells



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


Using advanced technologies to explore the inner workings of bacteria, biologists have provided the first example of cargo within bacteriophage cells transiting along treadmill-like structures. The discovery demonstrates that bacteria have more in common with sophisticated human cells than previously believed.


Breaking the code: How is a mother's immunity transferred to her baby?



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 11:35 AM PDT


A study has determined how a pregnant woman's vaccine-induced immunity is transferred to her child, which has implications for the development of more effective maternal vaccines.


Pre-pregnancy weight affects infant growth response to breast milk



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 10:37 AM PDT


In the first study of its kind, LSU Health New Orleans researchers report that women's pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity produces changes in breast milk, which can affect infant growth.


Early-season hurricanes result in greater transmission of mosquito-borne infectious disease



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 10:37 AM PDT


The timing of a hurricane is one of the primary factors influencing its impact on the spread of mosquito-borne infectious diseases such as West Nile Virus, dengue, chikungunya and Zika, according to new research.


Downward head tilt can make people seem more dominant



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 10:37 AM PDT


We often look to people's faces for signs of how they're thinking or feeling, trying to gauge whether their eyes are narrowed or widened, whether the mouth is turned up or down. But new findings show that facial features aren't the only source of this information -- we also draw social inferences from the head itself.


Once thought to be asexual, single-celled parasites caught in the act



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 10:37 AM PDT


The single-celled parasite Leishmania can reproduce sexually, according to new research. The finding could pave the way towards finding genes that help the parasite cause disease.


Monitoring educational equity



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 09:37 AM PDT


A centralized, consistently reported system of indicators of educational equity is needed to bring attention to disparities in the US education system, says a new report. Indicators -- measures used to track performance and monitor change over time -- can help convey why disparities arise, identify groups most affected by them, and inform policy and practice measures to improve equity in pre-K through 12th grade education.


Squid could thrive under climate change



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 09:37 AM PDT


When scientists subjected two-toned pygmy squid and bigfin reef squid to carbon dioxide levels projected for the end of the century, they received some surprising results.


New imaging modality targets cholesterol in arterial plaque



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 09:37 AM PDT


Researchers demonstrate a new imaging modality that successfully identifies the presence of cholesterol in the arterial plaque.


Genetic inequity towards endocrine disruptors



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 09:11 AM PDT


Phthalates are used by industry in plastic products. Their toxic effect on the endocrine system is worrying. Indeed, the exposure of male fetuses to phthalates can have devastating consequences for the fertility. However, researchers show that phthalate susceptibility depends largely on the genetic heritage of each individual. These results raise the question of individual vulnerability and the possible transmission to future generations of epigenetic changes that should normally be erased during fetal development.


Sensing food textures is a matter of pressure



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 09:10 AM PDT


Food's texture affects whether it is eaten, liked or rejected, according to researchers, who say some people are better at detecting even minor differences in consistency because their tongues can perceive particle sizes.


Earth's heavy metals result of supernova explosion, research reveals



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 09:10 AM PDT


New research suggests most of Earth's heavy metals were spewed from a largely overlooked kind of star explosion called a collapsar.


NASA's Fermi mission reveals its highest-energy gamma-ray bursts



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 09:10 AM PDT


For 10 years, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has scanned the sky for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the universe's most luminous explosions. A new catalog of the highest-energy blasts provides scientists with fresh insights into how they work.


Concert of magnetic moments



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 09:10 AM PDT


Researchers have uncovered a new way how the electron spins in layered materials can interact.


Married US moms aim to have first baby in the spring



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 09:10 AM PDT


Educated and married American moms are more likely to try to time their pregnancy so that they have their first baby in the spring, according to new research.


Lowering cholesterol is not enough to reduce hyperactivity of the immune system



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 09:10 AM PDT


Despite treatment with statins, many patients with elevated cholesterol levels will still develop cardiovascular disease. It is apparent that not only cholesterol but also the immune system plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Researchers now provide a novel potential explanation for this residual cardiovascular risk, related to persistent activation of the immune system in patients with hypercholesterolemia who are treated with statins.


Genes for Good project harnesses Facebook to reach larger, more diverse groups of people



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 09:10 AM PDT


The Genes for Good project has engaged more than 80,000 Facebook users, collected 27,000 DNA spit-kits, and amassed a trove of health survey data on a more diverse group of participants than has previously been possible.


Research shows temperature, glyphosate increase probability for dicamba volatility



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 09:10 AM PDT


New research suggests spraying dicamba in warm temperatures and adding glyphosate to a dicamba spray mixture could increase dicamba volatility, potentially leading to increased off-target movement and damage to non-tolerant plants.


Liquid gold on the nanoscale



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 09:10 AM PDT


Researchers have discovered what liquid gold looks like on the nanoscale -- and in doing so have mapped the way in which nanoparticles melt, which is relevant to the manufacturing and performance of nanotech devices.


Research identifies key driver for infanticide among chimpanzees



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 09:10 AM PDT


A new study concludes that the sexual selection hypothesis was the main reason for the high rates of infanticide among a community of chimpanzees in Uganda.


The whisper of schizophrenia: Machine learning finds 'sound' words predict psychosis



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 07:45 AM PDT


Automated analysis of the two language variables -- more frequent use of words associated with sound and speaking with low semantic density, or vagueness -- can predict whether an at-risk person will later develop psychosis with 93 percent accuracy.


Bitcoin causing carbon dioxide emissions comparable to Las Vegas or Hamburg



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 07:45 AM PDT


The use of Bitcoin causes around 22 megatons in carbon dioxide emissions annually -- comparable to the total emissions of cities such as Las Vegas or Hamburg.


Rheumatoid arthritic pain could be caused by antibodies



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 07:45 AM PDT


A new study finds that antibodies that exist in the joints before the onset of rheumatoid arthritis can cause pain even in the absence of arthritis. Researchers believe that the finding can represent a general mechanism in autoimmunity and that the results can facilitate the development of new ways of reducing non-inflammatory pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases.


Carbon-neutral fuel made from sunlight and air



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 07:31 AM PDT


Researchers have developed a novel technology that produces liquid hydrocarbon fuels exclusively from sunlight and air. For the first time worldwide they demonstrate the entire thermochemical process chain under real field conditions.


Interactions between plant and insect-infecting viruses



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 07:31 AM PDT


Aphids and the plant viruses they transmit cause billions of dollars in crop damage every year. Researchers are examining this relationship at the molecular level, which could lead to new methods for controlling the pests. The researchers uncovered what may be the first example of cooperation between a plant virus and an insect virus to increase their likelihood to spread.


New quantum dot microscope shows electric potentials of individual atoms



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 07:31 AM PDT


Researchers have developed a new method to measure the electric potentials of a sample at atomic accuracy. The new scanning quantum dot microscopy method could open up new opportunities for chip manufacture or the characterization of biomolecules such as DNA.


Increase in resolution, scale takes CT scanning and diagnosis to the next level



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 07:31 AM PDT


Researchers have developed a new, 3D tissue imaging technique, called X-ray histotomography. The technique allows researchers to study the details of cells in a zebrafish tissue sample without having to cut it into slices.


People with mobility issues set to benefit from wearable devices



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 07:31 AM PDT


Researchers are working on a project to develop wearable rehabilitative devices that can help disabled people sit, stand and walk in comfort.


Growing life expectancy inequality in US cannot be blamed on opioids alone



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 07:31 AM PDT


A new study challenges a popularized view about what's causing the growing gap between the lifespans of more- and less-educated Americans -- finding shortcomings in the widespread narrative that the United States is facing an epidemic of 'despair.'


'Virtual biopsy' device to detect skin tumors



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 07:31 AM PDT


Using sound vibrations and pulses of near-infrared light, a scientist has developed a new 'virtual biopsy' device that can quickly determine a skin lesion's depth and potential malignancy without using a scalpel.


Zebras' stripes could be used to control their temperature, study reveals



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 07:31 AM PDT


New research indicates that zebras' stripes are used to control body temperature after all -- and reveals for the first time a new mechanism for how this may be achieved.


Low vitamin K levels linked to mobility limitation and disability in older adults



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 07:31 AM PDT


Researchers evaluateD the association between biomarkers of vitamin K status and mobility limitation and disability, and found older adults with low levels of circulating vitamin K were more likely to develop these conditions.


New research decodes plant defense system, with an eye on improving farming and medicine



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 07:31 AM PDT


The plant circadian clock determines when certain defense responses are activated (often timed with peak activity of pests), and compounds used in defense affect the clock. New findings show how the clock regulates stomata opening/closure for defense, and how the defensive compound jasmonic acid influences the clock. This could lead to plants that are better at defending themselves, reducing the need for pesticides, and potentially influencing timing for human medical treatment.


New economic study shows combination of SNAP and WIC improves food security



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 07:31 AM PDT


Forty million Americans are food insecure. Given the extent of food insecurity, a team of economists developed a methodology to analyze potential redundancies between two food assistance programs -- SNAP and WIC. Their research shows that participating in both programs compared to SNAP alone increases food security by at least 2 percentage points and potentially as much as 24 percentage points.


Making the 'human-body Internet' more effective



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 06:52 AM PDT


Human body communication (HBC) uses the human body to transmit power and data, much like the internet. Because it's a smaller and closed network, it has the benefit of being more secure and power efficient. In a recent study, a group of Japanese researchers used an equivalent circuit model to examine how different parameters affect HBC transmission characteristics.


Braces won't always bring happiness



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 06:52 AM PDT


New research overturns the belief that turning your crooked teeth into a beautiful smile will automatically boost your self-confidence.


Two hours a week is key dose of nature for health and wellbeing



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 06:52 AM PDT


Spending at least two hours a week in nature may be a crucial threshold for promoting health and wellbeing, according to a new large-scale study.


Even in young children: Higher weight = higher blood pressure



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 06:52 AM PDT


Overweight 4-year-olds have a doubled risk of high blood pressure by age six, raising the hazard of future heart attack and stroke.


Lower risk of Type 1 diabetes seen in children vaccinated against 'stomach flu' virus



Posted: 13 Jun 2019 06:52 AM PDT


Vaccinating babies against a virus that causes childhood 'stomach flu' greatly reduces their chance of getting so sick that they need hospital care, a new study shows. But the study also reveals a surprise: Getting fully vaccinated against rotavirus in the first months of life is associated with a lower risk of developing Type 1 diabetes later on.
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