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ScienceDaily: Matter & Energy News


Researchers develop fire-retardant coating featuring renewable materials
Large study fails to link phthalates and increased breast cancer risk
Laser-induced graphene gets tough, with help
Teaching self-driving cars to predict pedestrian movement
Streetcars don't guarantee heightened development activity
Laser physics: Transformation through light
Nano drops a million times smaller than a teardrop explodes 19th century theory
New AI toolkit is the 'scientist that never sleeps'
Improving geothermal HVAC systems with mathematics
Phase transition dynamics in two-dimensional materials
Questions in quantum computing: How to move electrons with light
Selfies to self-diagnosis: Algorithm 'amps up' smartphones to diagnose disease
Simple and low-cost crack-healing of ceramic-based composites
The physical forces of cells in action
Research will help urban planners prioritize bike lanes
Engineered miniature kidneys come of age
Connection between home energy efficiency and respiratory health in low-income homes
First transport measurements reveal intriguing properties of germanene


Researchers develop fire-retardant coating featuring renewable materials



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 04:08 PM PST


Researchers are developing a new kind of flame-retardant coating using renewable, nontoxic materials readily found in nature, which could provide even more effective fire protection for several widely used materials.


Large study fails to link phthalates and increased breast cancer risk



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 01:00 PM PST


In the largest study to date on phthalates and postmenopausal breast cancer, a cancer epidemiology researcher found no association between breast cancer risk and exposure to the plasticizing and solvent chemicals used in such common products as shampoo, makeup, vinyl flooring, toys, medical devices and car interiors.


Laser-induced graphene gets tough, with help



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 01:00 PM PST


Laser-induced graphene combines with many materials to make tough, conductive composites for wearable electronics, anti-icing, antimicrobial applications, sensors and water treatment.


Teaching self-driving cars to predict pedestrian movement



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 10:47 AM PST


By zeroing in on humans' gait, body symmetry and foot placement, researchers are teaching self-driving cars to recognize and predict pedestrian movements with greater precision than current technologies.


Streetcars don't guarantee heightened development activity



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 09:01 AM PST


Development outcomes along streetcar corridors can't be entirely attributed to the presence of the streetcar, researchers found. Streetcar investment is commonly accompanied with a healthy incentive package, for example.


Laser physics: Transformation through light



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 09:01 AM PST


Laser physicists have taken snapshots of how C60 carbon molecules react to extremely short pulses of intense infrared light.


Nano drops a million times smaller than a teardrop explodes 19th century theory



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 09:00 AM PST


Droplets emanating from a molecular 'nano-tap' would behave very differently from those from a household tap 1 million times larger -- researchers have found. This is potentially crucial step for a number of emerging nano technologies, e.g., manufacture of nano-sized drug particles, lab-on-chip devices for in situ diagnostics, and 3D printers capable of nanoscale resolution.


New AI toolkit is the 'scientist that never sleeps'



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


Researchers have developed a new AI-driven platform that can analyze how pathogens infect our cells with the precision of a trained biologist.


Improving geothermal HVAC systems with mathematics



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


Sustainable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, such as those that harness low-enthalpy geothermal energy, are needed to reduce collective energy use and mitigate the continued effects of a warming climate. Researchers use asymptotic expansion techniques to study the harmonic thermal response of vertical geothermal boreholes in such systems to sub-annual harmonic excitations.


Phase transition dynamics in two-dimensional materials



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:48 AM PST


Scientists have discovered the mechanism involved when transition metal dichalcogenides on metallic substrates transform from the semiconducting 1H-phase to the quasi-metallic 1T'-phase.


Questions in quantum computing: How to move electrons with light



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:48 AM PST


To design future quantum technologies, scientists pinpoint how microwaves interact with matter.


Selfies to self-diagnosis: Algorithm 'amps up' smartphones to diagnose disease



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:26 AM PST


Smartphones aren't just for selfies anymore. A novel cell phone imaging algorithm can now analyze assays typically evaluated via spectroscopy, a powerful device used in scientific research. Researchers analyzed more than 10,000 images and found that their method consistently outperformed existing algorithms under a wide range of operating field conditions. This technique reduces the need for bulky equipment and increases the precision of quantitative results.


Simple and low-cost crack-healing of ceramic-based composites



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:26 AM PST


A team of researchers has demonstrated that cracks induced in composites consisting of alumina ceramics and titanium could be healed at room temperature, a world-first. This ceramic healing method permits crack-healing even in a state in which a device is mounted on a ceramic package at a low cost and without using complicated heat treatment processes that require significant amounts of energy.


The physical forces of cells in action



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 05:15 AM PST


The detection of physical forces is one of the most complex challenges facing science. Considered to play a decisive role in many biological processes, the chemical tools to visualize the physical forces in action do not exist. But today, researchers have developed probes inspired by lobster cooking, they enable to enter into cells. For the first time, physical forces can be imaged live inside the cells.


Research will help urban planners prioritize bike lanes



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 05:15 AM PST


A new virtual tool could help planners choose the best places to install bikes lanes in cities. The data-based tool builds on previous research that validated the safety benefits of bike lanes for cyclists and motorists.


Engineered miniature kidneys come of age



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 03:28 PM PST


A research team has now removed a major barrier for the use of kidney organoids as a tool to model kidney diseases, test drug toxicities and eventually for the creation of organ replacements, the lack of a pervasive blood vessel system (vasculature). The team solved this problem with a powerful new approach that exposes stem cell-derived kidney organoids to fluidic shear stress and thus enables them to vascularize and mature further than they could before.


Connection between home energy efficiency and respiratory health in low-income homes



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 10:14 AM PST


A new study finds people living in drafty homes in low-income, urban communities are at a higher risk of respiratory health issues.


First transport measurements reveal intriguing properties of germanene



Posted: 07 Feb 2019 10:24 AM PST


Germanene is a 2D material that derives from germanium and is related to graphene. As it is not stable outside the vacuum chambers in which is it produced, no real measurements of its electronic properties have been made. Scientists have now managed to produce devices with stable germanene. The material is an insulator, and it becomes a semiconductor after moderate heating and a very good metallic conductor after stronger heating.
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