ScienceDaily: Top Health News

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ScienceDaily: Top Health News


Balanced reporting of sports head injuries
How breast tissue stiffening promotes breast cancer development
Fractures, head injuries common in e-scooter collisions
Drinking and drug-use dreams in recovery tied to more severe addiction history
Uncovering the evolution of the brain
Role of estrogen in controlling Type 2 diabetes
Testosterone limits for female athletes based on 'flawed' research
Large study fails to link phthalates and increased breast cancer risk
Slower runners benefit most from elite methods
Women scarce in the one percent
Why too much DNA repair can injure tissue
With age comes hearing loss and a greater risk of cognitive decline
Gallbladder removal operation during pregnancy associated with adverse maternal outcomes
Teaching self-driving cars to predict pedestrian movement
Diets consisting of fewer calories improve cell performance
High cadence cycling offers no benefit to amateurs, finds new study
Scientists gain new insight on triggers for preterm birth
Infection biology: What makes Helicobacter so adaptable?
More efficient system to reprogram stem cells
Once seen as nerve cells' foot soldier, the axon emerges as decision-maker
Scientists provide new insight on gene mutations associated with autism
Accelerated risk of mobility loss for people aged 60+ tied to excess weight/inactivity
New AI toolkit is the 'scientist that never sleeps'
Walking simulation games signal a new literary genre
Why bribery works and what changes its effectiveness
Cancer comparison across species highlights new drug targets
How Viagra puts a brake on a master growth regulator to treat heart disease
Consciousness rests on the brain's ability to sustain rich dynamics of neural activity
Young children who express suicidal ideation understand death better than their peers
How sleep can fight infection
Face transplant surgery can improve speech in victims of severe face trauma
Investing in antibiotics critical to saving lives during pandemic influenza outbreaks
A new mouse model may unlock the secrets of type I diabetes
Another early-onset Alzheimer's gene mutation found, and traced back to Africa
Obstructive sleep apnea linked to inflammation, organ dysfunction
Gory, freaky, cool: Marine snail venom could improve insulin for diabetic patients
What can early adulthood tell us about midlife identity?
Investigating cell stress for better health -- and better beer
More is better when coordinating with others
Tracking HIV's ever-evolving genome in effort to prioritize public health resources
Direct-acting antivirals reduce risk of premature mortality and liver cancer for people with chronic hepatitis C, study finds
Study finds upsurge in 'active surveillance' for low-risk prostate cancer
Almost 2,000 unknown bacteria discovered in the human gut
Engineered miniature kidneys come of age
Nearly half of adults with heart disease can't afford their medical bills
Learning a second alphabet for a first language


Balanced reporting of sports head injuries



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 04:09 PM PST


A group of more than 60 leading international neuroscientists are asking for balance when reporting on sports-related injury chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).


How breast tissue stiffening promotes breast cancer development



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 04:09 PM PST


By examining how mammary cells respond in a stiffness-changing hydrogel, researchers discovered that several pathways work together to signal breast cells to turn cancerous. The work could inspire new approaches to treating patients and inhibiting tumor growth.


Fractures, head injuries common in e-scooter collisions



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 04:08 PM PST


UCLA researchers have found that people involved in electric scooter accidents are sometimes injured badly enough -- from fractures, dislocated joints and head injuries -- to require treatment in an emergency department.


Drinking and drug-use dreams in recovery tied to more severe addiction history



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 04:08 PM PST


Vivid dreams involving drinking and drug use are common among individuals in recovery. A study finds these relapse dreams are more common in those with more severe clinical histories of alcohol and other drug problems.


Uncovering the evolution of the brain



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 04:08 PM PST


What makes us human, and where does this mysterious property of 'humanness' come from? Humans are genetically similar to chimpanzees and bonobos, yet there exist obvious behavioral and cognitive differences. Now, researchers have developed a strategy to more easily study the early development of human neurons compared with the neurons of nonhuman primates.


Role of estrogen in controlling Type 2 diabetes



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 01:22 PM PST


The results of a recent study provide insights into the mechanism by which estrogen can decrease insulin resistance and the production of glucose, reducing incidences of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Testosterone limits for female athletes based on 'flawed' research



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 01:00 PM PST


New rules governing international track and field competitions would require some women to medically reduce their testosterone levels to compete. A new study suggests the regulations are rooted in flawed science.


Large study fails to link phthalates and increased breast cancer risk



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 01:00 PM PST


In the largest study to date on phthalates and postmenopausal breast cancer, a cancer epidemiology researcher found no association between breast cancer risk and exposure to the plasticizing and solvent chemicals used in such common products as shampoo, makeup, vinyl flooring, toys, medical devices and car interiors.


Slower runners benefit most from elite methods



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 01:00 PM PST


How much do high-tech shoes, special diets and exercises, drafting behind other runners and other strategies to improve your 'running economy' actually improve your finish time? A new study spells it out. The takeaway: The faster you are, the harder it is to get faster.


Women scarce in the one percent



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 01:00 PM PST


Looking at income inequality reveals vast gender inequality as well, according to a new study. While the families earning in the top one percent of American household incomes receive nearly one-fourth of all U.S. income, the bulk of earning is done by men. Women's income alone is sufficient for one percent status in only five percent of elite households. Moreover, women's income contributes to achieving one percent ranking in only 15 percent of households.


Why too much DNA repair can injure tissue



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 11:14 AM PST


Researchers have discovered how overactive DNA repair systems can lead to retinal damage and blindness in mice. A DNA repair enzyme called Aag glycosylase becomes hyperactive, provoking an inflammatory response that produces necrosis, leading to severe tissue damage.


With age comes hearing loss and a greater risk of cognitive decline



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 10:48 AM PST


In a new study, researchers report that hearing impairment is associated with accelerated cognitive decline with age, though the impact of mild hearing loss may be lessened by higher education.


Gallbladder removal operation during pregnancy associated with adverse maternal outcomes



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 10:47 AM PST


When faced with painful gallstones, pregnant women should consider postponing surgical treatment until after childbirth, new study results show.


Teaching self-driving cars to predict pedestrian movement



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 10:47 AM PST


By zeroing in on humans' gait, body symmetry and foot placement, researchers are teaching self-driving cars to recognize and predict pedestrian movements with greater precision than current technologies.


Diets consisting of fewer calories improve cell performance



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 09:01 AM PST


Animal experiments have shown that caloric restriction causes cellular changes that can prevent diseases.


High cadence cycling offers no benefit to amateurs, finds new study



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 09:01 AM PST


A new study has found that exercise efficiency decreases in recreational cyclists when they pedal very hard, incorporating more revolutions per minute.


Scientists gain new insight on triggers for preterm birth



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 09:01 AM PST


A group of scientists have gained new insight on a poorly-understood key player in the timing of labor and delivery. This new information brings scientists closer to being able to prevent preterm births.


Infection biology: What makes Helicobacter so adaptable?



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 09:00 AM PST


The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori owes its worldwide distribution to its genetic adaptability. Microbiologists have identified an enzyme that plays a vital role in the flexible control of global gene expression in the species.


More efficient system to reprogram stem cells



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 09:00 AM PST


Induced pluripotent stem cells, the workhorse of many regenerative medicine projects, start out as differentiated cells that are reprogrammed to pluripotent stem cells by exposure to a complex set of genetic cocktails.


Once seen as nerve cells' foot soldier, the axon emerges as decision-maker



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:48 AM PST


New research reveals that parts of the neuron are far more complex than once thought.


Scientists provide new insight on gene mutations associated with autism



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


A novel investigation into the impacts of neuronal mutations on autism-related characteristics in humans has been described.


Accelerated risk of mobility loss for people aged 60+ tied to excess weight/inactivity



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


The combination of excess weight/obesity and an inactive lifestyle represents a powerful joint risk factor for developing mobility loss after age 60, according to a new study.


New AI toolkit is the 'scientist that never sleeps'



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


Researchers have developed a new AI-driven platform that can analyze how pathogens infect our cells with the precision of a trained biologist.


Walking simulation games signal a new literary genre



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


Walking simulation games signal a new literary genre Research has revealed that walking simulations are blurring the boundaries of different art forms to create a new literary genre. Walking simulations -- video games where there are no winners and no one is shot at or killed -- have become increasingly popular in the last few years.


Why bribery works and what changes its effectiveness



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


A new study suggests that greed, and not the willingness to return the favor, is the main reason people give in to bribery. But the research also finds there are times when the almighty buck can be ignored and effects of a bribe can be lessened.


Cancer comparison across species highlights new drug targets



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


Cancer genes in mucosal melanoma, a rare and poorly understood subtype of melanoma, have been compared in humans, dogs and horses for the first time. Researchers sequenced the genomes of the same cancer across different species to pinpoint key cancer genes. The results give insights into how cancer evolves across the tree of life and could guide the development of new therapies.


How Viagra puts a brake on a master growth regulator to treat heart disease



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:47 AM PST


When normal cells grow, divide or do any job in the body, they do so in response to a whole slew of internal sensors that measure nutrients and energy supply, and environmental cues that inform what happens outside the cell.


Consciousness rests on the brain's ability to sustain rich dynamics of neural activity



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 07:42 AM PST


Consciousness, from the moment we go to sleep until we wake up, seems to come and go every day. Consciousness can be temporarily abolished by pharmacological agents or more permanently by brain injury. Each of these departures from conscious wakefulness brings about different changes in brain function, behavior and in the brain's neurochemistry. However, they all share a common feature: the lack of reported subjective experience.


Young children who express suicidal ideation understand death better than their peers



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:49 AM PST


Four- to six-year-old children who express suicidal thoughts and behaviors have a better understanding of what it means to die than the majority of their peers, reports a new study.


How sleep can fight infection



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:48 AM PST


Researchers have discovered why sleep can sometimes be the best medicine. Sleep improves the potential ability of some of the body's immune cells to attach to their targets, according to a new study. The study helps explain how sleep can fight off an infection, whereas other conditions, such as chronic stress, can make the body more susceptible to illness.


Face transplant surgery can improve speech in victims of severe face trauma



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:48 AM PST


A new case study finds that face transplant surgery in patients who have experienced severe facial trauma can improve speech production.


Investing in antibiotics critical to saving lives during pandemic influenza outbreaks



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:48 AM PST


Researchers have developed a mathematical framework to estimate the value of investing in developing and conserving an antibiotic to mitigate the burden of bacterial infections caused by resistant Staphylococcus aureus during a pandemic influenza outbreak.


A new mouse model may unlock the secrets of type I diabetes



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:26 AM PST


Finding new treatments or a cure for type I diabetes has been elusive in part because scientists have not had a reliable animal model that mimics the full scope of human type I diabetes. A research team has now developed a humanized mouse model that spontaneously develops Type I diabetes and the full range of complications experienced by diabetes patients. That allows study of the disease and its natural progression in a way not previously possible.


Another early-onset Alzheimer's gene mutation found, and traced back to Africa



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:26 AM PST


For some of us, they carry the bright blue of our grandfather's eyes. For others they result in the characteristic cleft chin or the familial tendency toward color blindness. But in some families, the genetic mutations handed down from generation to generation aren't as benign. And for one family in particular, the mutation results in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.


Obstructive sleep apnea linked to inflammation, organ dysfunction



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 06:25 AM PST


Voyagers no longer embark in search of the storied Fountain of Youth, but the quest for longevity is still very much alive for researchers. Chronological age -- the passing of time one spends on this planet -- cannot be reversed, of course. However, biological age -- one's health relative to that of one's peers -- can be turned back. Healthy lifestyle habits contribute to "aging well," meaning one's biological age is younger than one's chronological age, researchers said. And sleep is a major factor in how well one ages.


Gory, freaky, cool: Marine snail venom could improve insulin for diabetic patients



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 05:15 AM PST


Researchers detailed the function of cone snail insulins, bringing them one step closer to developing a faster-acting insulin to treat diabetes.


What can early adulthood tell us about midlife identity?



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 05:15 AM PST


A recent study indicates that personality style in young adulthood anticipates identity formation later in life.


Investigating cell stress for better health -- and better beer



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 05:15 AM PST


Human beings are not the only ones who suffer from stress -- even microorganisms can be affected. Now, researchers have devised a new method to study how single biological cells react to stressful situations. Understanding these responses could help develop more effective drugs for serious diseases. As well as that, the research could even help to brew better beer.


More is better when coordinating with others



Posted: 12 Feb 2019 05:15 AM PST


Researchers have demonstrated that physical coordination is more beneficial in larger groups.


Tracking HIV's ever-evolving genome in effort to prioritize public health resources



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 04:22 PM PST


Using HIV genetic data, researchers discovered that transgender women in Los Angeles are at higher risk of being in an HIV transmission network than men who have sex with men. In addition, cisgender men in these clusters should be considered at higher risk for HIV than previously thought.


Direct-acting antivirals reduce risk of premature mortality and liver cancer for people with chronic hepatitis C, study finds



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 04:21 PM PST


The first prospective, longitudinal study investigating treatment of chronic hepatitis C with direct-acting antivirals finds that the treatment is associated with reduced risk of mortality and liver cancer.


Study finds upsurge in 'active surveillance' for low-risk prostate cancer



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 03:28 PM PST


Many men with low-risk prostate cancer who most likely previously would have undergone immediate surgery or radiation are now adopting a more conservative 'active surveillance' strategy, according to a new study.


Almost 2,000 unknown bacteria discovered in the human gut



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 03:28 PM PST


Researchers have used computational methods to identify nearly 2,000 uncultured gut bacterial species. Study authors call for more data from South America, Africa and Asia, in order to achieve a more comprehensive blueprint of the human gut. Access to thousands of new gut bacterial genomes allows researchers to characterize the gut microbiota more accurately.


Engineered miniature kidneys come of age



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 03:28 PM PST


A research team has now removed a major barrier for the use of kidney organoids as a tool to model kidney diseases, test drug toxicities and eventually for the creation of organ replacements, the lack of a pervasive blood vessel system (vasculature). The team solved this problem with a powerful new approach that exposes stem cell-derived kidney organoids to fluidic shear stress and thus enables them to vascularize and mature further than they could before.


Nearly half of adults with heart disease can't afford their medical bills



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 11:27 AM PST


More than 45 percent of non-elderly adults with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) report financial hardship due to the associated medical bills. Worse still, about one in five report being unable to pay those medical bills at all, said the researchers.


Learning a second alphabet for a first language



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 10:15 AM PST


A part of the brain that maps letters to sounds can acquire a second, visually distinct alphabet for the same language, according to a study of English speakers. The research challenges theoretical constraints on the range of visual forms available to represent written language.
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