ScienceDaily: Top News

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ScienceDaily: Top News


Sniffing out error in detection dog data
Viruses under the microscope
The walking dead: Fossils on the move can distort patterns of mass extinctions
World speed record for polymer simulations shattered by over a hundred-fold
Dietary fiber reduces brain inflammation during aging
How skin begins: New research could improve skin grafts, and more
Gut microbes' role in mammals' evolution starts to become clearer
We have more than enough calories, but what about other nutrients?
Probiotic use may reduce antibiotic prescriptions
Geologists reveal ancient connection between England and France
New method promises fewer side effects from cancer drugs
Scientists reveal drumming helps schoolchildren diagnosed with autism
Calorie counts on restaurant menus have customers ordering less
Trees reveal the evolution of environmental pollution
Leptospirosis strains identified in Uruguay cattle
Largest study of 'post-treatment controllers' reveals clues about HIV remission
Most fire in Florida goes undetected
Programmable materials: Hydrogels capable of complex movement created
Conservation dairy farming could help Pa. meet Chesapeake target
Helping computers fill in the gaps between video frames
Suspending young students risks future success in school
Mixed chemicals in beauty products may harm women's hormones
The next phase: Using neural networks to identify gas-phase molecules
Expedited partner therapy: With STDs at an all-time high, why aren't more people getting a proven treatment?
Why some people are at risk of gout
BPA replacements in plastics cause reproductive problems in lab mice
People show confirmation bias even about which way dots are moving
Enhanced 3-D imaging poised to advance treatments for brain diseases
Eyes have a natural version of night vision
Open insulin, 'DIY bio' and the future of pharma
Caspase-2 enzyme inhibitor shows promise for ameliorating fatty liver disease
One in three college freshmen worldwide reports mental health disorder
BUFFALO charges towards the earliest galaxies
Obesity alters airway muscle function, increases asthma risk
New means to fight 'un-killable' bacteria in healthcare settings
Computer avatars play a part in dementia detection
Appetite for shark fin soup serious risk to threatened sharks
Testosterone replacement therapy may slow the progression of COPD
New devices could reduce excess heat in computers
Disrupting genetic processes reverses aging in human cells
The art of storytelling: Researchers explore why we relate to characters


Sniffing out error in detection dog data



Posted: 14 Sep 2018 07:04 AM PDT


New research finds three alternative answers beyond errors in handler or dog training that can explain why dogs trained to identify scat for conservation purposes sometimes collect non-target scats.


Viruses under the microscope



Posted: 14 Sep 2018 07:04 AM PDT


Human herpesviruses such as HHV-6 can remain dormant in cells for many years without being noticed. When reactivated, they can cause serious clinical conditions. Researchers have now found a way of differentiating between active and inactive viruses.


The walking dead: Fossils on the move can distort patterns of mass extinctions



Posted: 14 Sep 2018 07:03 AM PDT


Using the fossil record to accurately estimate the timing and pace of past mass extinctions is no easy task, and a new study highlights how fossil evidence can produce a misleading picture if not interpreted with care.


World speed record for polymer simulations shattered by over a hundred-fold



Posted: 14 Sep 2018 07:03 AM PDT


By analogy to linear polymers, which reptate with a random walk embedded in a 3D network, we show that star polymers relax by a random walk in a 5D network.


Dietary fiber reduces brain inflammation during aging



Posted: 14 Sep 2018 05:48 AM PDT


As mammals age, immune cells in the brain known as microglia become chronically inflamed. In this state, they produce chemicals known to impair cognitive and motor function. That's one explanation for why memory fades and other brain functions decline during old age. But, according to a new study, there may be a remedy to delay the inevitable: dietary fiber.


How skin begins: New research could improve skin grafts, and more



Posted: 14 Sep 2018 05:48 AM PDT


Researchers have discovered a key mechanism by which skin begins to develop in embryos.


Gut microbes' role in mammals' evolution starts to become clearer



Posted: 14 Sep 2018 05:48 AM PDT


Scientists have made a key advance toward understanding which of the trillions of gut microbes may play important roles in how humans and other mammals evolve.


We have more than enough calories, but what about other nutrients?



Posted: 14 Sep 2018 05:48 AM PDT


A new study is the first to quantitatively map the flow of energy, protein, fat, essential amino acids and micronutrients from 'field-to-fork' at a global level and identify hotspots where nutrients are lost. The study shows that while we produce far more nutrients than is required for the global population, inefficiencies in the supply chain leave many people nutrient deficient.


Probiotic use may reduce antibiotic prescriptions



Posted: 14 Sep 2018 05:48 AM PDT


The use of probiotics is linked to reduced need for antibiotic treatment in infants and children, according to a review of studies that probed the benefits of probiotics, co-led by a Georgetown investigator.


Geologists reveal ancient connection between England and France



Posted: 14 Sep 2018 05:48 AM PDT


The British mainland was formed from the collision of not two, but three ancient continental land masses, according to new research.


New method promises fewer side effects from cancer drugs



Posted: 14 Sep 2018 05:48 AM PDT


A recent achievement in the field of protein research allows for better tailored pharmaceuticals with fewer side effects.


Scientists reveal drumming helps schoolchildren diagnosed with autism



Posted: 14 Sep 2018 05:48 AM PDT


Children diagnosed with autism perform better in school if they participate in two 30-minute drumming sessions a week, according to a new scientific study.


Calorie counts on restaurant menus have customers ordering less



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 01:00 PM PDT


Researchers conducted a randomized experiment and found that diners at full service restaurants whose menus listed calories ordered meals with 3 percent fewer calories -- about 45 calories less -- than those who had menus without calorie information. Customers ordered fewer calories in their appetizer and entree courses, but their dessert and drink orders remained the same.


Trees reveal the evolution of environmental pollution



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 11:20 AM PDT


Chemical analysis of tipuana tree rings and bark by Brazilian researchers shows falling levels of heavy metal pollution in the air of São Paulo City, Southern Hemisphere's largest metropolis.


Leptospirosis strains identified in Uruguay cattle



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 11:20 AM PDT


Leptospirosis infections, caused by Leptospira bacteria, occur in people and animals around the world, but different strains of the bacteria may vary in their ability to cause disease and to jump between species. Now, researchers have for the first time described the characteristics of the Leptospira variants that infect cattle in Uruguay.


Largest study of 'post-treatment controllers' reveals clues about HIV remission



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 10:46 AM PDT


Much remains unknown about a group of individuals known as HIV post-treatment controllers, including how rare this ability is. Two new studies explore the characteristics of this group as well as the biological mechanisms that may help explain this unique ability.


Most fire in Florida goes undetected



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 10:45 AM PDT


A new study indicates that common satellite imaging technologies have vastly underestimated the number of fires in Florida, detecting only 25 percent of burned area.


Programmable materials: Hydrogels capable of complex movement created



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 10:45 AM PDT


Researchers have developed a process by which 2-D hydrogels can be programmed to expand and shrink in a space- and time-controlled way that applies force to their surfaces, enabling the formation of complex 3-D shapes and motions.


Conservation dairy farming could help Pa. meet Chesapeake target



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 10:45 AM PDT


If the majority of dairy farms in Pennsylvania fully adopt conservation best-management practices, the state may be able to achieve its total maximum daily load water-quality target for the Chesapeake Bay, according to researchers.


Helping computers fill in the gaps between video frames



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 10:45 AM PDT


Researchers have developed an add-on module that helps artificial intelligence systems called convolutional neural networks, or CNNs, to fill in the gaps between video frames to greatly improve the network's activity recognition.


Suspending young students risks future success in school



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 10:45 AM PDT


New research finds that young suspended students -- especially boys -- are likely to be suspended again later in elementary school.


Mixed chemicals in beauty products may harm women's hormones



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 10:45 AM PDT


Researchers have discovered links between chemicals that are widely used in cosmetic and personal care products and changes in reproductive hormones.


The next phase: Using neural networks to identify gas-phase molecules



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:39 AM PDT


Scientists have developed a neural network that can identify the structure of molecules in the gas phase, offering a novel technique for national security and pharmaceutical applications.


Expedited partner therapy: With STDs at an all-time high, why aren't more people getting a proven treatment?



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:39 AM PDT


In a new paper, physicians describe the barriers that stand in the way of getting expedited partner therapy to more people.


Why some people are at risk of gout



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:39 AM PDT


Researchers have helped characterize a genetic variant that enables new understanding of why some people are at risk of gout, a painful and debilitating arthritic disease.


BPA replacements in plastics cause reproductive problems in lab mice



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:39 AM PDT


Twenty years ago, researchers made the accidental discovery that BPA had leached out of plastic cages used to house female mice in the lab, causing an increase in chromosomally abnormal eggs. Now, the same team is back to report that the array of alternative bisphenols now used to replace BPA in BPA-free bottles, cups, cages, and other items appear to come with similar problems for their mice.


People show confirmation bias even about which way dots are moving



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:39 AM PDT


People have a tendency to interpret new information in a way that supports their pre-existing beliefs, a phenomenon known as confirmation bias. Now, researchers have shown that people will do the same thing even when the decision they've made pertains to a choice that is rather less consequential: which direction a series of dots is moving and whether the average of a series of numbers is greater or less than 50.


Enhanced 3-D imaging poised to advance treatments for brain diseases



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:39 AM PDT


Researchers have developed a combination of commercially available hardware and open-source software, named PySight, which improves rapid 2-D and 3-D imaging of the brain and other tissues.


Eyes have a natural version of night vision



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:39 AM PDT


To see under starlight and moonlight, the retina of the eye changes both the software and hardware of its light-sensing cells to create a kind of night vision. Retinal circuits that were thought to be unchanging and programmed for specific tasks actively adapt to different light conditions, say the scientists who made the discovery.


Open insulin, 'DIY bio' and the future of pharma



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:39 AM PDT


A growing community of do-it-yourself 'biohackers' are disrupting business-as-usual for pharmaceutical discovery, development and distribution. A new article looks at how the pharmaceutical industry, and the U.S. regulatory environment, will need to change in response.


Caspase-2 enzyme inhibitor shows promise for ameliorating fatty liver disease



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:39 AM PDT


Researchers have discovered using mice and human clinical specimens that caspase-2, a protein-cleaving enzyme, is a critical driver of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a chronic and aggressive liver condition. By identifying caspase-2's critical role, they believe an inhibitor of this enzyme could provide an effective way to stop the pathogenic progression that leads to NASH -- and possibly even reverse early symptoms.


One in three college freshmen worldwide reports mental health disorder



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:39 AM PDT


A new study finds that more than one-third of first-year university students in eight industrialized countries around the globe report symptoms consistent with a diagnosable mental health disorder.


BUFFALO charges towards the earliest galaxies



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:39 AM PDT


The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has started a new mission to shed light on the evolution of the earliest galaxies in the Universe. The BUFFALO survey will observe six massive galaxy clusters and their surroundings. The first observations show the galaxy cluster Abell 370 and a host of magnified, gravitationally lensed galaxies around it.


Obesity alters airway muscle function, increases asthma risk



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:39 AM PDT


Obesity changes how airway muscles function, increasing the risk of developing asthma, a new study suggests.


New means to fight 'un-killable' bacteria in healthcare settings



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:38 AM PDT


Scientists have identified new means of fighting drug-tolerant bacteria, a growing global threat as menacing as drug-resistant microbes. Little is known about the mechanisms leading to tolerance, a strategy that makes bacteria 'indifferent' to antibiotics and almost 'un-killable,' which results in chronic infections extremely difficult to treat and cure.


Computer avatars play a part in dementia detection



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:38 AM PDT


Scientists have demonstrated the possibility of detecting dementia from conversations in human-agent interaction. Their research shows how a machine can learn characteristics of sounds of elderly people who answered easy questions from avatars on a computer.


Appetite for shark fin soup serious risk to threatened sharks



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:38 AM PDT


Fishing pressure on threatened shark populations has increased dramatically in recent years and it is urgent that consumers reject shark fin products altogether, new study asserts.


Testosterone replacement therapy may slow the progression of COPD



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:38 AM PDT


Testosterone replacement therapy may slow disease progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, according to new research.


New devices could reduce excess heat in computers



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:38 AM PDT


Antiferromagnets could make it possible to achieve computing speeds much faster than existing devices, new research suggests.


Disrupting genetic processes reverses aging in human cells



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:38 AM PDT


Research has shed new light on genetic processes that may one day lead to the development of therapies that can slow, or even reverse, how our cells age.


The art of storytelling: Researchers explore why we relate to characters



Posted: 13 Sep 2018 08:38 AM PDT


For thousands of years, humans have relied on storytelling to engage, to share emotions and to relate personal experiences. Now, psychologists are exploring the mechanisms deep within the brain to better understand just what happens when we communicate.
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