ScienceDaily: Top News

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ScienceDaily: Top News


Researchers home in on genes linked to age-related macular degeneration
Protein released from fat after exercise improves glucose
Developing a flight strategy to land heavier vehicles on Mars
Low-income boys' inattention in kindergarten associated with lower earnings 30 years later
Beyond romance: Empathy and bonding
New Alzheimer's therapy with brain blood flow discovery?
Masterswitch discovered in body's immune system
Mosquitoes that carry malaria may have been doing so 100 million years ago
Scientists use smartphones to improve dismal rating of nation's civil infrastructure
Scientists use machine learning to ID source of Salmonella
PET imaging agent may allow early measurement of efficacy of breast cancer therapy
New tuberculosis drug may shorten treatment time for patients
Changes in lung cells seen almost immediately after contact with low-molecular weight PAHs
How your smartphone is affecting your relationship
Interaction between immune factors triggers cancer-promoting chronic inflammation
Engineers develop room temperature, two-dimensional platform for quantum technology
Puzzling sizes of extremely light calcium isotopes
Chirality of Weyl fermions
Toward automated animal identification in wildlife research
Why children struggle with the 'cocktail party effect'
Re-establishing oyster beds to maximize their ecological benefits
Aquaculture does little, if anything, to conserve wild fisheries
Grocery-store based nutrition education improves eating habits
Do we have an epidemic? Enhancing disease surveillance using a health information exchange
The widow next door: Where is the globally invasive noble false widow settling next?
Is our personality affected by the way we look? (Or the way we think we look?)
Researchers 3D bio-print a model that could lead to improved anticancer drugs and treatments
Pitch perfect: Brain differences behind a rare musical ability
Scientists build the smallest optical frequency comb to-date
X-rays used to understand the flaws of battery fast charging
Next-generation optics in just two minutes of cooking time
Brazil-endemic plant genus Mcvaughia highlights diversity in a unique biome
New model predicts how ground shipping will affect future human health, environment
Human enhancement: Is it good for society?
Flags that generate energy from wind and sun
Many Arctic lakes give off less carbon than expected
Sand from glacial melt could be Greenland's economic salvation
Quantum strangeness gives rise to new electronics
Theories describe dynamically disordered solid materials
Modern mahouts taking care of elephants in Myanmar are younger and less experienced
Rats in augmented reality help show how the brain determines location
Interventions to reduce antibiotics require tailored approach in developing countries
Acoustic waves can monitor stiffness of living cells
Spinal cord is 'smarter' than previously thought
Surrounded by low achievers:High on positive emotions?
Marine scientists find toxic bacteria on microplastics retrieved from tropical waters
You are what you eat: A color-changing insect modifies diet to become distasteful
New role for death molecule
Benefits of delayed cord clamping in healthy babies
Climate change may destroy tiger's home
New research insights hold promise for kids with DMD
Shameful secrets bother us more than guilty secrets
Antibody could increase cure rate for blood, immune disorders
Inexpensive supplement for women increases infant birth size
New device simplifies measurement of fluoride contamination in water
Boosting solid state chemical reactions
Skyglow over key wildlife areas
Oral contraceptives could impair women's recognition of complex emotions
On the land, one-quarter of vertebrates die because of humans
More than half a million breast cancer deaths averted in the US over three decades


Researchers home in on genes linked to age-related macular degeneration



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 03:28 PM PST


Scientists have zeroed in on genes associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of vision loss and blindness among people age 65 and older. These findings provide a more expanded and in-depth picture of the genetic contributions to AMD, and they present new pathways for treatment development.


Protein released from fat after exercise improves glucose



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 01:40 PM PST


Exercise training causes dramatic changes to fat. Additionally, this 'trained' fat releases beneficial factors into the bloodstream.


Developing a flight strategy to land heavier vehicles on Mars



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 01:40 PM PST


The heaviest vehicle to successfully land on Mars is the Curiosity Rover at 1 metric ton, about 2,200 pounds. Sending more ambitious robotic missions to the surface of Mars, and eventually humans, will require landed payload masses in the 5- to 20-ton range. To do that, we need to figure out how to land more mass. That was the goal of a recent study.


Low-income boys' inattention in kindergarten associated with lower earnings 30 years later



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 01:40 PM PST


A new longitudinal study examined boys from low-income backgrounds to determine which behaviors in kindergarten are associated with earnings in adulthood. The study concluded that inattention was associated with lower earnings and prosocial behavior with higher earnings.


Beyond romance: Empathy and bonding



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 01:40 PM PST


Love can make us do crazy things. It often prompts us to behave in counterintuitive ways, like, for example, placing the wellbeing of our loved ones above our own. But why?


New Alzheimer's therapy with brain blood flow discovery?



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 01:40 PM PST


By discovering the culprit behind decreased blood flow in the brain of people with Alzheimer's, biomedical engineers at have made possible promising new therapies for the disease.


Masterswitch discovered in body's immune system



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 01:40 PM PST


Scientists have discovered a critical part of the body's immune system with potentially major implications for the treatment of some of the most devastating diseases affecting humans. The study could translate into treatments for autoimmune diseases including Cancer, Diabetes, Multiple Sclerosis and Crohn's Disease within a few years.


Mosquitoes that carry malaria may have been doing so 100 million years ago



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 01:39 PM PST


The anopheline mosquitoes that carry malaria were present 100 million years ago, new research shows, potentially shedding fresh light on the history of a disease that continues to kill more than 400,000 people annually.


Scientists use smartphones to improve dismal rating of nation's civil infrastructure



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 01:39 PM PST


In the United States, aging civil infrastructure systems are deteriorating on a massive scale. A recent report by the American Society of Civil Engineers gave these systems a D+ rating nationwide on an A-F scale. Now scientists at the have developed smartphone-based technologies that can monitor civil infrastructure systems such as crumbing roads and aging bridges, potentially saving millions of lives.


Scientists use machine learning to ID source of Salmonella



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 01:39 PM PST


A team of scientists has developed a machine-learning approach that could lead to quicker identification of the animal source of certain Salmonella outbreaks.


PET imaging agent may allow early measurement of efficacy of breast cancer therapy



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 01:39 PM PST


Physicians may soon have a new way to measure the efficacy of hormone therapy for breast cancer patients.


New tuberculosis drug may shorten treatment time for patients



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 11:27 AM PST


A new experimental antibiotic for tuberculosis has been shown to be more effective against TB than isoniazid, a decades-old drug which is currently one of the standard treatments. In mouse studies, the new drug showed a much lower tendency to develop resistance, and it remains in the tissues where the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria reside for longer, killing them more effectively.


Changes in lung cells seen almost immediately after contact with low-molecular weight PAHs



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 11:27 AM PST


A new study shows cancer-promoting changes in lung cells as soon as 30 minutes after exposure to low-molecular weight PAHs, adding further evidence that regulators may be underestimating the risk of these compounds.


How your smartphone is affecting your relationship



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 11:00 AM PST


The allure of smartphones, and how they impact our interpersonal relationships, might be the result of our evolutionary history, according to researchers.


Interaction between immune factors triggers cancer-promoting chronic inflammation



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 11:00 AM PST


A research team has identified interaction between two elements of the immune system as critical for the transformation of a protective immune response into chronic, cancer-promoting inflammation.


Engineers develop room temperature, two-dimensional platform for quantum technology



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 11:00 AM PST


Researchers have now demonstrated a new hardware platform based on isolated electron spins in a two-dimensional material. The electrons are trapped by defects in sheets of hexagonal boron nitride, a one-atom-thick semiconductor material, and the researchers were able to optically detect the system's quantum states.


Puzzling sizes of extremely light calcium isotopes



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 11:00 AM PST


Researchers have measured for the first time the nuclei of three protein-rich calcium isotopes.


Chirality of Weyl fermions



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 11:00 AM PST


Quasiparticles that behave like massless fermions, known as Weyl fermions, have been in recent years at the center of a string of exciting findings in condensed matter physics. Physicists now report experiments in which they got a handle on one of the defining properties of Weyl fermions -- their chirality.


Toward automated animal identification in wildlife research



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 11:00 AM PST


A new program automatically detects regions of interest within images, alleviating a serious bottleneck in processing photos for wildlife research.


Why children struggle with the 'cocktail party effect'



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 10:15 AM PST


Researchers have clarified the development of the ability to attend to a speaker in a noisy environment -- a phenomenon known as the 'cocktail party effect.' Published in JNeurosci, the study could have implications for helping children navigate the often-noisy surroundings in which they grow and learn.


Re-establishing oyster beds to maximize their ecological benefits



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 10:15 AM PST


Researchers have developed a mapping tool that identifies sites for re-establishing oyster reefs that maximize their ecological benefits -- such as water filtration. This Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based tool could inform restoration of other vital, sensitive coastal habitats.


Aquaculture does little, if anything, to conserve wild fisheries



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 10:15 AM PST


New research finds that aquaculture, or fish farming, does not help conserve wild fisheries.


Grocery-store based nutrition education improves eating habits



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 10:15 AM PST


Hypertension affects over 60 million adults in the United States and less than half have their condition under control. A new study found that grocery store-based nutrition counseling was effective in changing dietary habits of patients being treated for hypertension.


Do we have an epidemic? Enhancing disease surveillance using a health information exchange



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 10:15 AM PST


While disease surveillance has shifted toward greater use of electronically transmitted information to decrease the reporting burden on physicians, the challenge of getting the right information to public health officials at the right time has not been completely solved.


The widow next door: Where is the globally invasive noble false widow settling next?



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 10:15 AM PST


The noble false widow spider, Steatoda nobilis, native to Madeira and the Canary Islands, has been introduced accidentally to countries around the globe, causing considerable concerns. Thus, a team of researchers sought to understand how the species became so widespread and predict where it could appear next. According to a recent study the countries which are at an immediate risk of invasions are South Africa, Australia and New Zealand.


Is our personality affected by the way we look? (Or the way we think we look?)



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 10:15 AM PST


To what extent is our personality an adaptation to our appearance or even our physique? A team of scientists has investigated this question. Their results: it depends - on our gender and on which behavior.


Researchers 3D bio-print a model that could lead to improved anticancer drugs and treatments



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 10:15 AM PST


Researchers have developed a way to study cancer cells which could lead to new and improved treatment. They have developed a new way to study these cells in a 3D in vitro model (i.e., in a culture dish rather than in a human or animal).


Pitch perfect: Brain differences behind a rare musical ability



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 10:15 AM PST


New research reports features of the brain in musicians with absolute, or perfect, pitch (AP) that likely enable individuals with this rare ability -- shared by Mozart, Bach, and Beethoven -- to precisely identify musical notes.


Scientists build the smallest optical frequency comb to-date



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 10:14 AM PST


Scientists have built a photonic integrated, compact, and portable soliton microcomb source. The device is less than 1 cm3 in size, and is driven by an on-chip indium phosphide laser consuming less than 1 Watt of electrical power. It can be used in LIDAR, data center interconnects, and even satellites.


X-rays used to understand the flaws of battery fast charging



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 10:14 AM PST


Researchers imaged a battery as it was quickly charged and discharged, allowing for the observation of lithium plating behavior that can inhibit the battery's long-term function.


Next-generation optics in just two minutes of cooking time



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 10:14 AM PST


One of the key building blocks of flexible photonic circuits and ultra-thin optics are metasurfaces. And engineers have now discovered a simple way of making these surfaces in just a few minutes -- without needing a clean room -- using a method already employed in manufacturing.


Brazil-endemic plant genus Mcvaughia highlights diversity in a unique biome



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 10:14 AM PST


A new species of the Brazil-endemic small genus Mcvaughia described as part of a extended revision of this unique group. Mcvaughia is a genus of the plant family Malpighiaceae comprising just three known species, all of which endemic to the unique and recently recognized Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests biome found in the Atlantic Forest and Caatinga domains in northeastern Brazil.


New model predicts how ground shipping will affect future human health, environment



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 10:14 AM PST


The trucks and trains that transport goods across the United States emit gases and particles that threaten human health and the environment. A new project developed a new model that predicts through 2050 the impact of different environmental policies on human mortality rates and short- and long-term climate change caused by particulate and greenhouse gas emissions.


Human enhancement: Is it good for society?



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 08:43 AM PST


Human enhancement technologies are opening up tremendous new possibilities. But they're also raising important questions about what it means to be human. These technologies are currently geared towards upgrading or restoring physical and psychological abilities for medical purposes. An application is surfacing, however, that is designed with another goal in mind: embellishing performance. An international team of researchers has been examining the ethical issues arising from these experiments.


Flags that generate energy from wind and sun



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 08:42 AM PST


Scientists have created flags that can generate electrical energy using wind and solar power.


Many Arctic lakes give off less carbon than expected



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 08:42 AM PST


New research suggests many lakes in the Arctic pose little threat to global carbon levels, at least for now.


Sand from glacial melt could be Greenland's economic salvation



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 08:42 AM PST


As climate change melts Greenland's glaciers and deposits more river sediment on its shores, an international group of researchers has identified one unforeseen economic opportunity for the Arctic nation: exporting excess sand and gravel abroad, where raw materials for infrastructure are in high demand.


Quantum strangeness gives rise to new electronics



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 08:42 AM PST


Today, a new breed of electronic devices, bearing unique properties, is being developed. As ultra-miniaturization continues apace, researchers have begun to explore the intersection of physical and chemical properties occurring at the molecular scale.


Theories describe dynamically disordered solid materials



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 08:42 AM PST


Theoretical physicists have developed a computational method to calculate the transition from one phase to another in dynamically disordered solid materials. This is a class of materials that can be used in many eco-friendly applications.


Modern mahouts taking care of elephants in Myanmar are younger and less experienced



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 08:42 AM PST


Traditional elephant handling worldwide is rapidly changing. Researchers discovered that mahouts in Myanmar are only 22 years old on average, with an average experience of three years working with elephants, and they are changing elephants yearly preventing the development of long-term bonds between elephants and mahouts. These shifts contrast the traditional elephant-keeping system of skills being accumulated over a lifetime of working with the same elephant before being taught to the younger generation.


Rats in augmented reality help show how the brain determines location



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 08:42 AM PST


Before the age of GPS, humans had to orient themselves without on-screen arrows pointing down an exact street, but rather, by memorizing landmarks and using learned relationships among time, speed and distance. They had to know, for instance, that 10 minutes of brisk walking might equate to half a mile traveled. A new Johns Hopkins study found that rats' ability to recalibrate these learned relationships is ever-evolving, moment-by-moment.


Interventions to reduce antibiotics require tailored approach in developing countries



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 08:42 AM PST


Fears around leaving infectious diseases untreated and poorly enforced antibiotic supply controls could hamper efforts to reduce the use of antibiotics in low to middle income countries, according to a new study.


Acoustic waves can monitor stiffness of living cells



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 08:41 AM PST


Engineers have devised a new, non-invasive way to monitor the stiffness of single living cells, using acoustic waves. Their technique could be used to study many biological phenomena, such as cell division, programmed cell death or metastasis.


Spinal cord is 'smarter' than previously thought



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 08:41 AM PST


New research has shown that the spinal cord is able to process and control complex functions, like the positioning of your hand in external space. 'This research has shown that a least one important function is being done at the level of the spinal cord and it opens up a whole new area of investigation.


Surrounded by low achievers:High on positive emotions?



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 08:41 AM PST


Researchers demonstrate negative impacts of high-achieving environment on school students' individual emotional well-being.


Marine scientists find toxic bacteria on microplastics retrieved from tropical waters



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 08:03 AM PST


A team of marine scientists had uncovered toxic bacteria living on the surfaces of microplastics (which are pieces of plastic smaller than 5 millimeters in size) collected from the coastal areas of Singapore. These bacteria are capable of causing coral bleaching, and triggering wound infections in humans. The team also discovered a diversity of bacteria, including useful organisms - such as those that can degrade marine pollutants like hydrocarbons - in the plastic waste.


You are what you eat: A color-changing insect modifies diet to become distasteful



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 07:54 AM PST


When young spotted lanternflies grow they become brightly red. Around this time, they also begin to feed almost exclusively on the tree of heaven, from which they suck bitter juices into their bodies. In this way, they coordinate the moment when they become bright and visible to predators with the time when they become distasteful to predators. Birds learn to avoid bitter prey when the prey are brightly colored.


New role for death molecule



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 07:54 AM PST


To unravel programmed cell death pathways, investigators examine a molecule deemed unimportant, and find new function.


Benefits of delayed cord clamping in healthy babies



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 07:54 AM PST


A five-minute delay in the clamping of healthy infants' umbilical cords results in increased iron stores and brain myelin in areas important for early-life functional development, a new study has found.


Climate change may destroy tiger's home



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 07:54 AM PST


A scientist says the last coastal stronghold of an iconic predator, the endangered Bengal tiger, could be destroyed by climate change and rising sea levels over the next 50 years.


New research insights hold promise for kids with DMD



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 06:54 AM PST


Prednisone, the current standard of care used to treat kids with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), reduces chronic inflammation but has harsh side effects. Eplerenone, a heart failure drug, is used in older patients to treat cardiomyopathy, a leading cause of mortality for people with DMD. A new medicine under development appears to combine the beneficial effects of these drugs for the heart and muscle while also showing improved safety in experimental models.


Shameful secrets bother us more than guilty secrets



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 06:54 AM PST


Everyone has secrets, but what causes someone to think about them over and over again? People who feel shame about a secret, as opposed to guilt, are more likely to be consumed by thoughts of what they are hiding, according to new research.


Antibody could increase cure rate for blood, immune disorders



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 06:54 AM PST


An antibody-based treatment can gently and effectively eliminate diseased blood-forming stem cells in the bone marrow to prepare for the transplantation of healthy stem cells, according to a study in mice.


Inexpensive supplement for women increases infant birth size



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 06:54 AM PST


For women in resource-poor settings, taking a certain daily nutritional supplement before conception or in early pregnancy may provide enough of a boost to improve growth of the fetus, according to a new study. The inexpensive supplement consists of dried skimmed milk, soybean and peanut extract blended into a peanut butter-like consistency.


New device simplifies measurement of fluoride contamination in water



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 05:32 AM PST


Seeking to address fluoride contamination in drinking water, chemical engineers have developed a portable and user-friendly device that can measure fluoride concentration accurately and reliably.


Boosting solid state chemical reactions



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 05:32 AM PST


Adding olefin enables efficient solvent-free cross-coupling reactions, leading to environmentally friendly syntheses of a wide range of organic materials.


Skyglow over key wildlife areas



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 05:32 AM PST


Light pollution affects the skies over most of the world's key wildlife areas, new research shows.


Oral contraceptives could impair women's recognition of complex emotions



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 05:32 AM PST


Women who take the pill are nearly 10 percent worse at recognizing subtle expressions of complex emotions like pride or contempt, according to new research. Previous research suggests the relationship is causal, but the impact on women's ability to form intimate relationships is unknown.


On the land, one-quarter of vertebrates die because of humans



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 05:32 AM PST


Humans have a ''disproportionately huge effect'' on the other species of vertebrates that share Earth's surface with us, causing more than 25 percent of the deaths among an array of species all over the globe, according to a recently published study.


More than half a million breast cancer deaths averted in the US over three decades



Posted: 11 Feb 2019 05:32 AM PST


Latest US estimates indicate that since 1989, hundreds of thousands of women's lives have been saved by mammography and improvements in breast cancer treatment. The findings point to progress made in early detection and management of breast cancer.
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