ScienceDaily: Top News

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ScienceDaily: Top News


Nitrogen pollution's path to streams weaves through more forests (and faster) than suspected
Precision medicine for pediatric cancer
Sweat holds most promise for noninvasive testing
Near-perfect performance in low-cost semiconductors
Seeing through a robot's eyes helps those with profound motor impairments
Oscillation in muscle tissue
Chemical probe can regulate signaling pathway and block cell invasion by arboviruses
A new battle: Veterans more likely to have heart disease
Nanocrystal 'factory' could revolutionize quantum dot manufacturing
Quantum sensing method measures minuscule magnetic fields
New proof that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disease
Trials testing new educational methods in schools 'often fail to produce useful evidence'
A repellent odor inhibits the perception of a pleasant odor in vinegar flies
Mental health issues increased significantly in young adults over last decade
Higher egg and cholesterol consumption hikes heart disease and early death risk
Research set to shake up space missions
Design and validation of world-class multilayered thermal emitter using machine learning
AI and MRIs at birth can predict cognitive development at age 2
Cause of cathode degradation identified for nickel-rich materials
New light shed on link between alcohol marketing and increased consumption in young people
For older adults, sense of control tied to feeling younger
Enzyme USP15 may have potential role in future treatment of various cancers
New wheel units could bring vehicle costs down
Scientists track patterns of island growth in crystals
With single gene insertion, blind mice regain sight
Uncovering uncultivated microbes in the human gut
Sea quark surprise reveals deeper complexity in proton spin puzzle
Sources and Sinks: What drives long-term climatic trends?
In this nematode species males are needed for reproduction but not their genes
Tectonics in the tropics trigger Earth's ice ages
Exotic 'second sound' phenomenon observed in pencil 'lead'
Are we at the limits of measuring water-repellent surfaces
How a mitochondrial enzyme can trigger cell death
Tracking turtles with telemetry
Most countries in sub-Saharan Africa not on track for under-5 mortality reduction goal
Narwhals spend at least half time diving for food, can fast for several days after meal
Diet-induced changes favor innovation in speech sounds
Using an anti-smoking drug to control neurons
Unique diversity of the genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula revealed by dual studies
Pests and the plant defenses against them drive diversity in tropical rainforests


Nitrogen pollution's path to streams weaves through more forests (and faster) than suspected



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 01:10 PM PDT


Scientists have completed one of the largest and longest examinations to trace unprocessed nitrate movement in forests. The team found that some nitrate occasionally moves too fast for biological uptake, resulting in 'unprocessed' nitrate bypassing the otherwise effective filter of forest biology.


Precision medicine for pediatric cancer



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 12:55 PM PDT


Research performed over the last several decades has led to an increased understanding of the genetics of cancer. The clinical application of this knowledge for pediatric cancer has lagged behind studies performed for adults. Medical researchers now survey the landscape of this young field and present opportunities for using genomic information to advance a new era of care for children with cancer.


Sweat holds most promise for noninvasive testing



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 12:55 PM PDT


Medical researchers have been creating new sensors on a wearable patch the size of a Band-Aid that stimulates sweat even when a patient is cool and resting. The sensor measures specific analytes over time that doctors can use to determine how the patient is responding to a drug treatment.


Near-perfect performance in low-cost semiconductors



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 12:55 PM PDT


Researchers redefine what it means for low-cost semiconductors, called quantum dots, to be near-perfect and find that quantum dots meet quality standards set by more expensive alternatives.


Seeing through a robot's eyes helps those with profound motor impairments



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 12:54 PM PDT


An interface system that uses augmented reality technology could help individuals with profound motor impairments operate a humanoid robot to feed themselves and perform routine personal care tasks such as scratching an itch and applying skin lotion. The web-based interface displays a 'robot's eye view' of surroundings to help users interact with the world through the machine.


Oscillation in muscle tissue



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 09:52 AM PDT


When a muscle grows or a muscle injury heals, some of the stem cells develop into new muscle cells. A research team has now described how this process is regulated by two proteins produced in an oscillatory manner.


Chemical probe can regulate signaling pathway and block cell invasion by arboviruses



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 08:59 AM PDT


Dysregulation of the signaling pathway known as the beta-catenin-dependent Wnt can also cause embryo malformation and contribute for the development of breast and cervical cancer.


A new battle: Veterans more likely to have heart disease



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 08:59 AM PDT


After the war is over, veterans face a new threat. They are more likely to have heart disease at a younger age than nonveterans, and this could herald a new health crisis on the horizon.


Nanocrystal 'factory' could revolutionize quantum dot manufacturing



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 08:59 AM PDT


A new system for synthesizing quantum dots across the entire spectrum of visible light drastically reduces manufacturing costs, can be tuned on demand to any color and allows for real-time process monitoring to ensure quality control.


Quantum sensing method measures minuscule magnetic fields



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 08:59 AM PDT


A new technique uses quantum sensors to enable precise measurements of magnetic fields in different directions.


New proof that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disease



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 08:09 AM PDT


Researchers have discovered autoreactive cells in persons suffering from narcolepsy. This is a new, important proof that the sleep disorder is an autoimmune disease. This knowledge may lead to better treatment of the chronic condition, the researchers behind the new discovery believe.


Trials testing new educational methods in schools 'often fail to produce useful evidence'



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 08:09 AM PDT


The new study found that 40% of large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the UK and the US failed to produce any evidence as to whether an educational intervention helped to boost academic attainment or not.


A repellent odor inhibits the perception of a pleasant odor in vinegar flies



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 08:09 AM PDT


Scientists have discovered that repellent odors suppress the perception of pleasant smells. This happens because certain brain structures that respond to attractive odors are inhibited by a repellent one. These processes in the brain are also reflected in the behavior of the flies. This helps them to avoid spoiled or infected food sources, which would have fatal consequences for the flies and their offspring.


Mental health issues increased significantly in young adults over last decade



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 08:09 AM PDT


The percentage of young Americans experiencing certain types of mental health disorders has risen significantly over the past decade, with no corresponding increase in older adults, according to new research.


Higher egg and cholesterol consumption hikes heart disease and early death risk



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 08:08 AM PDT


Cancel the cheese omelet. A large, new study of nearly 30,000 people reports adults who ate more eggs and dietary cholesterol had a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular disease and death from any cause. People need to consume lower amounts of cholesterol to have a lower risk of heart disease, the study authors said.


Research set to shake up space missions



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 07:00 AM PDT


A new study has found a number of 2D materials can not only withstand being sent into space, but potentially thrive in the harsh conditions.


Design and validation of world-class multilayered thermal emitter using machine learning



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 07:00 AM PDT


Scientists designed a multilayered metamaterial that realizes ultra-narrowband wavelength-selective thermal emission by combining the machine learning (Bayesian optimization) and thermal emission properties calculations (electromagnetic calculation). The joint team then experimentally fabricated the designed metamaterial and verified the performance. These results may facilitate the development of highly efficient energy devices.


AI and MRIs at birth can predict cognitive development at age 2



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 07:00 AM PDT


Researchers used MRI brain scans and machine learning techniques at birth to predict cognitive development at age 2 years with 95 percent accuracy.


Cause of cathode degradation identified for nickel-rich materials



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 06:58 AM PDT


A team of scientists have identified the causes of degradation in a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, as well as possible remedies. Their findings could lead to the development of more affordable and better performing batteries for electric vehicles.


New light shed on link between alcohol marketing and increased consumption in young people



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 06:58 AM PDT


Young people's awareness of alcohol marketing -- and their ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise -- is associated with increased and higher-risk consumption, a landmark study has found.


For older adults, sense of control tied to feeling younger



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 06:58 AM PDT


A recent study finds that older adults feel younger when they feel that they have more control over their daily lives, regardless of stress or health concerns. However, stress and health -- not a sense of control -- play a significant role in how old younger adults feel.


Enzyme USP15 may have potential role in future treatment of various cancers



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 06:58 AM PDT


A team has found that the deubiquitinating enzyme USP15 is a potential biomarker for treatments of pancreatic cancer, as well as ovarian and breast cancers.


New wheel units could bring vehicle costs down



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 06:58 AM PDT


Vehicles could be affordably produced for a wide variety of specialized purposes using a sophisticated wheel unit.


Scientists track patterns of island growth in crystals



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 06:58 AM PDT


Scientists have found that the seemingly random arrangement of islands that form to begin new layers during crystal growth can actually be very similar from layer to layer. The discovery may help scientists better understand of some of the mechanisms behind defect formation, as well as develop techniques to synthesize new types of crystals.


With single gene insertion, blind mice regain sight



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 06:58 AM PDT


People left blind by retinal degeneration have one option: electronic eye implants. Neuroscientists have now developed an alternative: gene therapy that, in tests, restored vision in blind mice. A gene for green opsin delivered via virus gave blind mice enough sight to discern patterns on an iPad at a resolution sufficient for humans to read. Given existing AAV eye therapies already approved, this new therapy could be ready for clinical trials in three years.


Uncovering uncultivated microbes in the human gut



Posted: 15 Mar 2019 06:58 AM PDT


A human's health is shaped both by environmental factors and the body's interactions with the microbiome, particularly in the gut. Genome sequences are critical for characterizing individual microbes and understanding their functional roles. However, previous studies have estimated that only 50 percent of species in the gut microbiome have a sequenced genome, in part because many species have not yet been cultivated for study.


Sea quark surprise reveals deeper complexity in proton spin puzzle



Posted: 14 Mar 2019 04:26 PM PDT


New data from the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) add detail -- and complexity -- to an intriguing puzzle that scientists have been seeking to solve: how the building blocks that make up a proton contribute to its spin. The results reveal that different 'flavors' of antiquarks contribute differently to the proton's overall spin -- and in a way that's opposite to those flavors' relative abundance.


Sources and Sinks: What drives long-term climatic trends?



Posted: 14 Mar 2019 04:25 PM PDT


For the entire history of our species, humans have lived on a planet capped by a chunk of ice at each pole. But Earth has been ice-free for about 75 percent of the time since complex life first appeared. This variation in background climate, between partly glaciated and ice-free, has puzzled geologists for decades.


In this nematode species males are needed for reproduction but not their genes



Posted: 14 Mar 2019 12:17 PM PDT


In the Mesorhabditis belari roundworm, the sole purpose of males is to help females produce clones of themselves.


Tectonics in the tropics trigger Earth's ice ages



Posted: 14 Mar 2019 12:16 PM PDT


Over the last 540 million years, the Earth has weathered three major ice ages -- periods during which global temperatures plummeted, producing extensive ice sheets and glaciers that have stretched beyond the polar caps. Now scientists have identified the likely trigger for these ice ages.


Exotic 'second sound' phenomenon observed in pencil 'lead'



Posted: 14 Mar 2019 12:16 PM PDT


At relatively balmy temperatures, heat behaves like sound when moving through graphite, study reports.


Are we at the limits of measuring water-repellent surfaces



Posted: 14 Mar 2019 12:16 PM PDT


As we develop extremely liquid repellent surfaces, the errors in existing measurement techniques are getting too large.


How a mitochondrial enzyme can trigger cell death



Posted: 14 Mar 2019 12:16 PM PDT


Cytochrome c is a small enzyme that plays an important role in the production of energy by mitochondria. It is also involved in signaling dangerous problems that warrant apoptosis, or programmed cell death. Using solid-state NMR, researchers have discovered that the signal induced by cytochrome c is more controlled than expected.


Tracking turtles with telemetry



Posted: 14 Mar 2019 12:16 PM PDT


A new model has been created that can forecast the location of Eastern Pacific leatherback turtles along the coast of Central and South America in an effort to decrease bycatch mortality of this critically endangered and ecologically important species.


Most countries in sub-Saharan Africa not on track for under-5 mortality reduction goal



Posted: 14 Mar 2019 12:16 PM PDT


The relatively slow pace of neonatal and under-5 mortality reduction could prevent most countries in sub-Saharan Africa from achieving targets set in Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG-3) by 2030, according to a new study.


Narwhals spend at least half time diving for food, can fast for several days after meal



Posted: 14 Mar 2019 12:16 PM PDT


Narwhals -- enigmatic arctic whales known for their sword-like tusk -- spend over half their time diving to find food but are also able to last up to three days without a meal, according to a new study.


Diet-induced changes favor innovation in speech sounds



Posted: 14 Mar 2019 12:16 PM PDT


Diet-induced changes in the human bite resulted in new sounds such as 'f' in languages all over the world, a study by an international team led by researchers has shown. The findings contradict the theory that the range of human sounds has remained fixed throughout human history.


Using an anti-smoking drug to control neurons



Posted: 14 Mar 2019 12:16 PM PDT


A potent chemogenetic system pairs an anti-smoking drug with specially engineered proteins to change neuron activity. The research tool could one day be used to treat conditions like epilepsy or pain.


Unique diversity of the genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula revealed by dual studies



Posted: 14 Mar 2019 12:15 PM PDT


Researchers have analyzed ancient DNA from almost 300 individuals from the Iberian Peninsula, spanning more than 12,000 years. The first study looked at hunter-gatherers and early farmers living in Iberia between 13,000 and 6,000 years ago. The second looked at individuals from the region over the last 8000 years. Together, the two papers greatly increase our knowledge about the population history of this unique region.


Pests and the plant defenses against them drive diversity in tropical rainforests



Posted: 14 Mar 2019 12:15 PM PDT


Researchers have been baffled by tropical rainforest diversity for over a century; 650 different tree species can exist in an area covering two football fields, yet similar species never grow next to each other. It seems like it's good to be different than your neighbors, but why?
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